Teacher Strikes: 4 Common Questions

Jennyerin Steele Staats, a special education teacher from Jackson County, W.Va., joins other striking teachers as they demonstrate outside the state capitol in Charleston, W.Va., on Feb. 27.
Jennyerin Steele Staats, a special education teacher from Jackson County, W.Va., joins other striking teachers as they demonstrate outside the state capitol in Charleston, W.Va., on Feb. 27.
—Craig Hudson/Charleston Gazette-Mail via AP

A teacher strike—an organized refusal to work that causes public schools to close indefinitely—can throw a school, district, or even an entire state into turmoil. And while commonplace in decades past, teacher strikes now tend to happen just a handful of times each year and are generally concentrated in a few states, such as Pennsylvania and Illinois.

Already, 2018 has been a notable year for teacher strikes. The few walkouts so far have been powerful. In West Virginia, teachers secured a pay raise after a nine-day strike that closed schools across the state. It was the first strike of that magnitude—affecting 20,000 teachers—since the last time West Virginia teachers went on strike nearly 30 years ago.

And there’s some thought statewide walkouts are gaining momentum: Teachers in Arizona, Oklahoma, and Kentucky have threatened to strike as well.

Here’s a primer on teacher strikes then and now.

How Common Are Teacher Strikes?

While disruptive to the lives of students and families, teacher strikes are fairly rare. There have been between three and 13 teacher strikes per year since 2010. However, the length of those strikes has varied widely, from just one day to six weeks. Depending on how long a strike lasts, districts have to juggle making up school days; at times, that means shortening scheduled breaks.

Pennsylvania is known to have more strikes than other states–often the same local teachers’ union there will strike multiple times in the same school year. This has happened at least four times since 2010 (the law limits the number of strikes for each district in Pennsylvania to two per school year).

Strikes across an entire state are infrequent, and even when a strike is called “statewide,” it doesn’t always close all school districts. Mississippi’s strike in 1985, Kentucky’s in 2004, and West Virginia’s in 2007 all were called “statewide,” and yet less than half of districts were closed.

Unsurprisingly, statewide strikes tend to be about statewide issues, like public employee health-care plan fees or state education funding.

A Look at Statewide Strikes

While most strikes are organized more locally, every so often organizing efforts reach across all, or much of, an entire state. Here are some influential actions that were viewed as statewide.

  • 1968: The first statewide teacher strike was in Florida in 1968 when more than 40 percent of teachers did not come to school. The teachers actually resigned, because the state didn’t allow teachers to strike. At the end of the strike, which lasted for weeks, some teachers were not reinstated. But as a result of the strike, the state boosted education funding and collective bargaining rights for public employees.
  • 1985: Over 9,000 of Mississippi’s 25,000 teachers participated in a wildcat strike–one without the union’s authorization—closing schools in 58 of the state’s 154 districts over several weeks.
  • 1989: 20,000 Utah teachers staged a one-day strike, closing 38 of the state’s 40 school districts.
  • 1990: Teachers in West Virginia went on strike for 12 days.
  • 1990: Thousands of Oklahoma teachers engaged in a “protest” organized by the Oklahoma Education Association, which caused more than 120 of the state’s 600-plus school districts to close on different days over one week. The union didn’t officially call it a strike, to avoid diminishing public support for their cause.
  • 2001: 16,000 teachers and professors in Hawaii chose to strike, closing nearly all 256 public schools and 10 college campuses in the state for several weeks.
  • 2004: 20 of Kentucky’s 176 districts closed briefly because of a teacher strike over health-care plan costs.
  • 2007: Nearly 5,000 West Virginia teachers were on strike for one day, closing some or all schools in 14 of the state’s 55 districts.
  • 2018: After a nine-day strike, West Virginia teachers struck a deal with the state legislature for a 5 percent pay raise. The state also agreed to look into rising health insurance premiums, and freeze them temporarily.

How Have Strikes Changed Over Time?

The history of teacher strikes dates back to the 1950s and 1960s, when teachers and other public employees started pushing for the collective-bargaining rights held by private-sector employees. Most strikes in those decades—sometimes hundreds per year—focused on getting school boards to recognize teachers’ right to bargain, according to Jon Shelton, an assistant professor of history at University of Wisconsin Green Bay and the author of Teacher Strike! Public Education and the Making of a New American Political Order. Through the 1980s, much of the conflict revolved around staving off budget cuts and defending the gains teachers had made in the previous decades.

<i>Education Week</i>'s coverage of the 1990 Oklahoma teacher's strike.
Education Week's coverage of the 1990 Oklahoma teacher's strike.

“It’s not an exaggeration to say teacher strikes were a part of everyday life,” says Shelton.

But strikes began to taper off in the 1990s, with the number in the early 21st century only a fraction of what schools experienced the decade before. Education Week reported that there were 84 teacher strikes in the 1990-1991 school year, the bulk of them in Pennsylvania. That’s a big difference from these days: Since 2010, there hasn’t been more than 13 strikes in a year.

There are several probable reasons for this, according to Shelton: In the 1990s and early 2000s, the economy was more stable, inflation was down, and teachers’ unions were well-accepted by school districts as the representatives of teachers.

Is Striking Legal?

Whether teachers are legally allowed to strike varies from state-to-state. But in most places, striking is illegal.

As of January 2014, 35 states and the District of Columbia had laws forbidding strikes, according to Milla Sanes and John Schmitt of the Center for Economic and Policy Research. Teacher strikes are legal in 12 states and not covered in statutes or case law in three.

That said, teachers do strike in states where it’s illegal. For instance, strikes are against the law in West Virginia, but that did not stop teachers there this year.

Where Are Strikes Most Common?

Pennsylvania, Illinois, and California lead the way with the highest number of teacher strikes.

These three states are among those where all teachers must pay agency fees to the union—whether or not they are members of that union.

It’s less common for strikes to occur in right-to-work states—or those states in which unions cannot charge fees to nonmembers.

Of the 76 union-backed strikes that have occurred since 2010, only two were in right-to-work states, including March’s strike in West Virginia, according to an Education Week analysis.

Nationwide, strikes occur in all types of districts, whether urban, rural, or suburban.

Strikes are not teachers’ only bargaining tactics. “Sick-outs”—in which many teachers call in sick on the same day to shut down schools or entire districts—are also a tool used by unions. In Detroit, there have been at least three sickouts between 2016 and 2018 that closed the majority of the city’s schools for at least a day.

A further technique that teachers’ unions use to protest unsatisfactory contracts is “work-to-rule,” also known as “working the contract.” In that case, teachers stop doing any work outside of the hours required by their contract. That may mean teachers stop scheduling field trips, tutoring students after school, advising student clubs, and overseeing after-school activities.

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How to Cite This Article

Editorial Projects in Education. (2018, March 13). Issues A-Z: Teacher Strikes: 4 Common Questions. Education Week. Retrieved Month Day, Year from

Librarians Holly Peele and Maya Riser-Kositsky and Commentary Associate Kate Stoltzfus contributed to this report.

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