Special Report
College & Workforce Readiness

Data Mining Opens Window on Student Engagement

By Holly Kurtz — June 02, 2014 2 min read

Ask students if they always try their hardest in class, and they might say “yes” because that’s what their mother told them to do. Or maybe if the students are a little older, they say “never,” because they are trying on a carefree attitude to impress their friends.

Those are just some of the problems that researchers encounter when they try to measure engagement by surveying students about themselves.

Enter educational data mining. Long used in business settings, the practice is newer to education. It involves using strings of data collected during computerized instruction to identify patterns. Once identified, the patterns can then be used to improve the instruction by, for instance, eliminating a scenario in which students tend to lose interest and stop playing an educational game. The strategy can be used to track when and why students might be off task and to draw broader conclusions about different aspects of instruction, including learner engagement.

For instance, for a study that appeared last year in the peer-reviewed Journal of Educational Data Mining, Jennifer Sabourin, then a doctoral student at North Carolina State University, and her colleagues analyzed data from “Crystal Island,” a computer game that teaches middle school students about microbiology. Based on that data, the researchers were able to tell when students were playing the game as intended and when they seemed to be disengaged because they were indulging in off-task behavior like climbing trees to reach virtual rooftops. As expected, the researchers found that students who were frequently off task learned less.

But the game had another feature that led to a more unexpected conclusion: Every seven minutes, a box popped up onscreen asking students to classify their emotional states. That led researchers to discover that off-task behavior seemed to help some students collect themselves when they got frustrated. After playing around a bit, their frustration lessened and they returned to the game.

Tool for Program Evaluation

Besides its use in studying or assessing the engagement of individual students, data mining can also be a tool for ongoing program or course evaluation. In a 2012 article published in the peer-reviewed journal, Educational Technology & Society, a research team led by Jui-Long Hung, an associate professor of educational technology at Boise State University in Idaho, demonstrated how this might work. The team combined student learning logs, demographic data, and end-of-course evaluation surveys to assess a supplemental, online learning program for K-12 students. The data included information from 7,539 students taking 883 courses in the program. The researchers created an engagement index that assessed how students interacted with each course that included the frequency of logins and clicks and the average number of discussion-board entries. After combining these results with other information, such as students’ grades, the researchers found that more-engaged students got better grades. But in the entry-level courses, engaged and disengaged students alike had lower performance, leading researchers to suggest that these courses might have “structure, design, and/or support issues.”

In their report, Mr. Hung and his co-authors tout the benefits of combining data mining with other information to evaluate engagement. “The result is a much richer and deeper analysis of student performance and teaching, as well as of effective course design, than could ever be accomplished with survey data or behavior mining alone,” they write.

Coverage of school climate and student behavior and engagement is supported in part by grants from the Atlantic Philanthropies, the NoVo Foundation, the Raikes Foundation, and the California Endowment. Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage.


This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Student Well-Being Webinar
Equity, Care and Connection: New SEL Tools and Practices to Support Students and Adults
As school districts plan to welcome students back into buildings for the upcoming school year, this is the perfect time to take a hard look at both our practices and our systems to build a
Content provided by Panorama Education
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Classroom Technology Webinar
Here to Stay – Pandemic Lessons for EdTech in Future Development
What technology is needed in a post pandemic district? Learn how changes in education will impact development of new technologies.
Content provided by AWS
School & District Management Live Online Discussion A Seat at the Table: Strategies & Tips for Complex Decision-Making
Schools are working through the most disruptive period in the history of modern education, facing a pandemic, economic problems, social justice issues, and rapid technological change all at once. But even after the pandemic ends,

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

College & Workforce Readiness Opinion There’s Insurance for Homes or Cars—Why Not College Degrees?
Rick Hess talks with Wade Eyerly, the CEO of Degree Insurance, about the company's plan to make investing in a college degree less risky.
7 min read
Image shows a multi-tailed arrow hitting the bullseye of a target.
DigitalVision Vectors/Getty
College & Workforce Readiness Fewer Students in Class of 2020 Went Straight to College
First-year college enrollment dropped steeply last year, a study finds, and the declines were sharpest among poorer students.
6 min read
Image shows University Application Acceptance Notification Letter with ACCEPTED Stamp
College & Workforce Readiness Letter to the Editor Are Students Ready for Post-Pandemic Reality?
Schools must make improving students' essential skills a priority for college and career success, says the CEO and president of CAE.
1 min read
College & Workforce Readiness This Is Not a Good Time to Fall Off the College Track. Students Are Doing It Anyway
Fewer students in the Class of 2021 are applying for college financial aid, continuing a drop that started last year.
6 min read
Applications for the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) form are on the decline.
Applications for the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) form are on the decline.
Jon Elswick/AP