Published Online: December 29, 2006
Published in Print: January 4, 2007, as Sources & Notes

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CHANCE FOR SUCCESS

Family Income: Percent of dependent children (under 18 years of age) who live in above-low-income families. Low income is defined as 200 percent of the federal poverty level, which depends on the size and composition of the family. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

Parent Education: Percent of dependent children with at least one parent who holds a two- or four-year postsecondary degree. Ibid.

Parental Employment: Percent of dependent children with at least one parent who is steadily employed, defined as working full time (at least 35 hours per week) and year-round (at least 50 weeks during the previous year). Those not in the labor force are excluded from calculations. Active-duty military service is considered participation in the labor force. Ibid.

Linguistic Integration: Percent of dependent children whose parents are fluent speakers of English. Fluency is defined as being a native speaker or speaking the language “very well.” All resident parents must be fluent in English for a family to be considered linguistically integrated. Ibid.

Preschool Enrollment: Percent of 3- and 4-year-olds who are attending preschool. Both public and private education programs are counted. Ibid.

Kindergarten Enrollment: Percent of eligible children attending public or private kindergarten programs. The size of the entering kindergarten cohort is calculated based on the number of 5- and 6-year-olds in a state. Ibid.

Elementary Reading Achievement: Percent of 4th graders in public schools who score at or above the “proficient” level in reading on the 2005 State NAEP assessment. National Assessment of Educational Progress, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2005.

Middle School Mathematics Achievement: Percent of 8th graders in public schools who score at or above the “proficient” level in mathematics on the 2005 State NAEP assessment. Ibid.

High School Graduation Rate: Percent of public high school students who graduate on time with a standard diploma for the 2002-03 school year. The graduation rate is calculated using the EPE Research Center’s Cumulative Promotion Index (CPI) formula with data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core of Data. EPE Research Center, 2006.

Young Adult Education: Percent of young adults (ages 18 to 24) who are either currently enrolled in a postsecondary education program or who have already earned a postsecondary credential. Those still enrolled in high school programs are excluded from the calculation. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

Adult Educational Attainment: Percent of adults (ages 25 to 64) who have earned a postsecondary degree. Calculations include all individuals whose highest level of attained education is an associate’s, bachelor’s, graduate, or professional degree. Ibid.

Annual Income: Percent of adults (ages 25 to 64) whose annual personal income reaches or exceeds the national median ($34,351 in July 2005 dollars). Only individuals in the labor force are included in calculations. Ibid.

Steady Employment: Percent of adults (ages 25 to 64) who are employed on a steady basis, defined as working full time (at least 35 hours per week) and year-round (at least 50 weeks during the previous year). Those not in the labor force are excluded from calculations. Active-duty military service is considered participation in the labor force. Ibid.

Chance-for-Success Index: The Chance-for-Success score is calculated by tallying the points awarded for each of its 13 individual indicators. For each measure, states are compared with a national norm. If statistical analysis determines with 95 percent certainty that a state value is greater (or less) than the nation’s, that state receives (or loses) one point. If that determination can be made with an even greater degree of statistical confidence (99.5 percent), two points are added or subtracted. EPE Research Center, 2007.

CHILDHOOD WELL BEING

Outcome Indicators

Normal Birth Weight: Percent of children born weighing at least 2,500 grams. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 55, Sept. 29, 2006, www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/nvsr/55/55-pre.htm.

Family Income: Percent of dependent children who live in above-low-income families. Low income is defined as 200 percent of the federal poverty level, which depends on the size and composition of the family. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

Parent Education: Percent of dependent children with at least one parent who holds a two- or four-year postsecondary degree. Ibid.

Parental Employment: Percent of dependent children with at least one parent who is steadily employed, defined as working full time (at least 35 hours per week) and year-round (at least 50 weeks during the previous year). Those not in the labor force are excluded from calculations. Active-duty military service is considered participation in the labor force. Ibid.

Linguistic Integration: Percent of dependent children whose parents are fluent speakers of English. Fluency is defined as being a native speaker or speaking the language “very well.” All resident parents must be fluent in English for a family to be considered linguistically integrated. Ibid.

Child Health Insurance: Percent of children under age 18 covered by health insurance. EPE Research Center analysis of the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement, 2005.

Spending on Child-Care Services—total spending: Total combined child-care spending from the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant funds for fiscal year 2004-05. Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), “Child Care and Early Education State-by-State Data,” 2006, available at www.clasp.org/publications/childcareearlyedmap.htm.

Spending on Child-Care Services—per capita spending: State per-child spending is calculated by dividing total spending by the number of children under the age of 5. EPE Research Center analysis of data from CLASP and the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

EARLY-CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

Access and Funding

Total Preschool Enrollment: Percent of 3-and 4-year-olds who are attending preschool. Both public and private education programs are counted. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

State-Funded Preschool: Percent of 3- and 4-year-olds enrolled in state-funded preschool in the fall of 2004. National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER), “The State of Preschool: 2005 State Preschool Yearbook,” 2005, http://nieer.org/yearbook.

State Spending on Preschool Education—Total: Total state spending on public programs for the 2004-05 school year. Ibid.

State Spending on Preschool Education—Per capita: Per-child state spending on public programs for the 2004-05 school year. Ibid.

Preschool

Early-Learning Standards: State has comprehensive early-learning standards for the 2004-05 school year that address children’s physical well-being and motor development, social/emotional development, approaches toward learning, language development, and cognition and general knowledge. National Institute for Early Education Research (NIEER), “The State of Preschool: 2005 State Preschool Yearbook,” 2005, http://nieer.org/yearbook.

Early Learning Aligned With K-12: State has early-learning standards for the 2006-07 school year that describe what preschool students should know and be able to do and has aligned those expectations with academic standards in the elementary grades. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey, 2006.

School-Readiness Definition: State has a formal definition of school-readiness for the 2006-07 school year that specifies the characteristics of a child ready to enter school and become a successful student. Ibid.

School-Readiness Assessment: State administers a statewide school-readiness assessment or requires local school districts to assess the readiness of entering students for the 2006-07 school year. Ibid.

Readiness Interventions: State provides students not meeting school-readiness expectations with targeted services that go beyond what is required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, for the 2006-07 school year. Programs that identify children based solely on demographic characteristics do not receive credit. Ibid.

Kindergarten

Kindergarten Enrollment: Percent of eligible children attending public or private kindergarten programs. The size of the entering kindergarten cohort is calculated based on the number of 5- and 6-year-olds in a state. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

Kindergarten Policy: State requires school districts to offer half-day or full-day kindergarten programs for the 2003-04 school year. Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), “Key State Education Policies on PK-12 Education: 2004,” 2005, www.ccsso.org/content/pdfs/FINAL%20KSP%202004.pdf.

Attendance Policy: State requires eligible students to attend kindergarten (2003-04). Ibid.

Kindergarten Age: Age at which children are eligible to attend kindergarten (2003-04). Ibid.

Aligned Learning Standards: State has standards describing what kindergarten students should know and be able to do and has aligned those expectations with elementary and secondary academic standards for the 2006-07 school year. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey, 2006.

K-12 ACHIEVEMENT

Achievement Level

NAEP Mathematics 2005 (4th and 8th grades): Percent of public school students who score at or above the “proficient” level in mathematics on the 2005 State NAEP assessment. National Assessment of Educational Progress, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2005.

NAEP Reading 2005 (4th and 8th grades): Percent of public school students who score at or above the “proficient” level in reading on the 2005 State NAEP assessment. Ibid.

Achievement Gains

NAEP Mathematics Change 2003-2005 (4th and 8th grades): Change in NAEP scale scores for public school students between 2003 and 2005. Ibid.

NAEP Reading Change 2003-2005 (4th and 8th grades): Change in NAEP scale scores for public school students between 2003 and 2005. Ibid.

Poverty Gap

Poverty Gap for 8th Grade Math: Scale-score difference in NAEP achievement between public school students eligible and noneligible for the National School Lunch Program. Positive values indicate higher performance for noneligible students. Ibid.

Poverty-Gap Change for 8th Grade Math: Change in the size of the poverty gap for public school students between 2003 and 2005. Ibid.

High School Graduation

High School Graduation Rate: Percent of public high school students who graduate on time with a standard diploma for the 2002-03 school year. The graduation rate is calculated using the EPE Research Center’s Cumulative Promotion Index (CPI) formula with data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core of Data. EPE Research Center, 2006.

Change in Graduation Rate: Change in public high school graduation rate between 2000 and 2003. Ibid.

Advanced Placement

High-Score Ratio: Number of high AP test scores (3 or above) per 100 students in grades 11 and 12. Analysis is specific to public school students. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the College Board’s AP Summary Reports and the U.S. Department of Education’s Common Core of Data, 2005.

Change in High-Score Ratio: Change in the ratio of high AP scores for public school students between 2000 and 2005. Ibid.

Math Excellence in 8th Grade: Percent of public school students scoring at the “advanced” level on the 2005 State NAEP assessment. National Assessment of Educational Progress, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2005.

State Achievement Index: A state’s final score was calculated by tallying points across the set of 15 individual achievement measures. States significantly exceeding the national average (for level indicators) or improving over time (change indicators) received a point. Two points were awarded if they excelled by a particularly large statistical margin. Conversely, low-performing states lost one or two points. EPE Research Center, 2007.

POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION

College Readiness

Defining Readiness: State has formal expectations for what students will need to know and be able to do in order to be admitted to the state’s two-year and/or four-year institutions and enroll in credit-bearing courses. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey, 2006.

College Prep Required: State requires all students to take courses designed for students bound for four-year colleges or universities in order to receive a standard diploma. States receiving credit have defined a college-preparatory curriculum or identified its components. Ibid.

Course Credits Aligned: State has aligned course-credit requirements for earning the standard high school diploma with requirements for admission into the state’s postsecondary institutions. Ibid.

Aligning High School Assessments: State has aligned the content of high school assessments with academic expectations for two-year and/or four-year colleges and universities. Ibid.

Postsecondary Admission and Placement

High School Assessments: State uses results from its high school assessment program to determine whether students will be admitted to state universities, be permitted to enroll in credit-bearing college courses in particular academic subjects, or be selected to receive academic scholarships. Ibid.

Guaranteed Admission: State postsecondary system guarantees admission to public four-year institutions if state high school graduates meet specified requirements, such as high school coursetaking, grade point average, class rank, or test scores. Ibid.

Postsecondary Placement: State has established a statewide exam that colleges and universities use to determine whether students can enroll in credit-bearing courses in particular academic subjects or will be required to take remedial courses. Ibid.

Postsecondary Access

Chance for College: Percent of 9th graders estimated to finish high school in four years and attend college by age 19. Thomas Mortenson, “Chance for College by Age 19 by State in 2002” (accessed from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education’s Measuring Up 2006 report, available at http://measuringup.highereducation.org/).

Capacity of the Public Postsecondary System: Number of first-time degree seekers in public postsecondary institutions per 100 public high school completors in 2004. Capacity statistics are calculated for the state’s entire public higher education system and separately for two- and four-year institutions. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System and Common Core of Data, 2004.

Postsecondary Participation: Percent of young adults (ages 18 to 24) who are either currently enrolled in a postsecondary education program or who have already earned a postsecondary credential. Those still enrolled in high school programs are excluded from the calculation. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

Postsecondary Costs

Costs for Two-Year and Four-Year Public Institutions—Dollar Amount: Annual costs of a public college education for academic year 2005-06. Costs for four-year institutions include tuition, room, and board. Two-year costs include only tuition. Special analysis of data from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System’s Peer Analysis System, National Center for Education Statistics, conducted by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, 2006 (accessed from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education’s Measuring Up 2006 report, available at http://measuringup.highereducation.org/).

Costs for Two-Year and Four-Year Public Institutions—Relative to Family Income: Annual costs of a public college education for academic year 2005-06, expressed as a percent of the state’s annual median income (2005), as calculated by the EPE Research Center using the 2005 American Community Survey. Ibid.

Financial Aid per Student: Average size of financial-aid awards for four-year public college students. Results are reported for total financial aid and disaggregated into four separate aid categories: federal grants, needs-based state grants, non-needs-based state grants, and institutional grants. National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education’s Measuring Up 2006 report, available at http://measuringup.highereducation.org/.

Postsecondary Debt Burden: Average size of undergraduate student loan (annual). Ibid.

Postsecondary Persistence and Completion

Persistence in the 1st Year: Percent of students in public postsecondary institutions who return for their second year. Results are reported separately for two-year and four-year institutions. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, 2004.

Degree Completion: Percent of entering degree-seeking cohort in public higher education institutions that completes a postsecondary degree within 150 percent of the expected time. For four-year colleges, students must earn a bachelor’s degree within six years. Two-year college students must earn an associate’s degree within three years. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education’s Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System and Common Core of Data, 2004.

ECONOMY AND THE WORKFORCE

Work Readiness

Work-Readiness Definition: State has formal expectations for what high school students will need to know and be able to do in order to be prepared for the workplace. Findings indicate whether states have such definitions and whether they are distinct from college-readiness definitions. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey, 2006.

K-12 Career-Technical Pathways

Specialized Diploma: State gives students the option of earning a standard high school diploma with a concentration or endorsement in a career or technical field based upon the completion of a sequence of career-technical coursework. Ibid.

Industry Certification: State offers high school students the option of participating in a career or technical program or pathway that leads to an industry-recognized certificate or license. Ibid.

Earning College Credits in High School: State offers high school students the option of participating in a career or technical program or pathway allowing them to earn course credits that will be accepted by programs in the state’s postsecondary education system. Ibid.

Returns to Education

Adult Educational Attainment: Percent of the adult population (ages 25 to 64) with specified levels of education: less than high school, high school graduate, some college, and a four-year college degree or higher. Recipients of two-year associate’s degrees are counted in the “some college” category. EPE Research Center analysis of data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey, 2005.

Returns to Education—Income and Income Gaps: Median annual income levels earned by adults (ages 25 to 64) in the labor force. Income is expressed in July 2005 dollars. Results are reported separately by highest level of education attained. Income-gap statistics calculate the difference in annual income between individuals with specified levels of education. Ibid.

Returns to Education—Steady Employment and Employment Gaps: Percent of adults (ages 25 to 64) in the labor force who are employed on a steady basis, defined as working full time (at least 35 hours per week) and year-round (at least 50 weeks during the previous year). Results are reported separately by highest level of education attained. Gap statistics calculate the difference in the steady-employment rate between individuals with specified levels of education. Ibid.

INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

School Attendance

Compulsory-Attendance Ages: The ages at which students are required to start schooling and at which they are permitted to exit formal education. Education for All Global Monitoring Report, Table 4, UNESCO, 2007.

Education Expectancy: Number of years of formal education that a 5-year-old can expect to experience during his or her lifetime given conditions in 2004. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators, 2006.

Educational Participation Rates

Enrollment Rates: Percent of population enrolled in educational programs by school level, 2004. Secondary education includes the lower-secondary, upper-secondary, and postsecondary nontertiary levels. Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2007, UNESCO.

Educational Expenditures

Expenditures on Educational Programs: Total amount of public expenditures on education for 2003. Educational expenditures are expressed in billions of U.S. dollars and as a percent of the specified nation’s gross domestic product (GDP). Conversions to U.S. currency were performed by the EPE Research Center. Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators, 2006.

Distribution of Expenditures: Share of total spending that is expended at specified levels of education (e.g., preprimary, primary through secondary, and tertiary). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators, 2006.

STANDARDS, ASSESSMENTS, AND ACCOUNTABILITY

Standards

State has adopted standards in the core subjects: EPE Research Center annual state policy survey, 2006.

State has standards that are clear, specific, and grounded in content: Results are reported by level and academic subject area. American Federation of Teachers, “Smart Testing: Let’s Get It Right” www.aft.org/pubs-reports/downloads/teachers/Testingbrief.pdf and unpublished reviews, 2006.

State has supplementary resources or guides for educators that elaborate on official academic-standards documents: Results are reported by academic subject area. EPE Research Center annual state policy survey, 2006.

State has a regular timeline for revising standards: Ibid.

Most recent year in which state updated academic-content standards: Results are reported by academic subject area. Ibid.

Assessment

Types of statewide tests required: Criterion-referenced tests (CRT) are custom-designed to match state standards. Off-the-shelf or norm-referenced tests (NRT) are commercially developed products that have not been modified to reflect state content standards. Augmented or hybrid tests incorporate elements of both CRTs and NRTs. Ibid.

Subjects in which state uses assessments aligned to state standards: Ibid.

Vertically Equated Assessments: State tests have been vertically equated in grades 3 through 8 so that scores for all grade levels have been placed on a common metric. Results are reported for English/language arts and mathematics. Ibid.

School Accountability

State assigns ratings to all schools based on criteria other than AYP: State has an accountability system that uses ratings based on state-developed criteria, which may or may not also include elements of adequate yearly progress (AYP). Ibid.

State has a statewide student-identification system (2006-07): State attaches unique identification codes to individual students for tracking purposes so that individual test-score data can be linked to specific schools or teachers. Ibid.

State uses measures of individual student growth to rate schools: Results are reported separately for use of student growth for federal AYP accountability and for state-specific ratings. Ibid.

State provides rewards to high-performing or improving schools: Reward programs may require schools to apply or compete for extra funding. Rewards to schools do not need to be based on school ratings. Ibid.

State provides assistance to low-performing schools: State provides funding or technical assistance to failing or low-performing schools, based on school ratings. Credit is given only for statewide policies that are not limited to Title I schools. Ibid.

State sanctions low-performing schools: State is authorized to apply the specified sanctions to low-performing schools under state law. Results are reported for 10 different types of sanctions. Credit is given only for statewide policies that are not limited to Title I schools. Ibid.

Vol. 26, Issue 17, Page 94

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