Middle School Educators Debate Meaning of ‘Rigor’

November 14, 2001 3 min read
  • Save to favorites
  • Print

The middle-level curriculum has been under increasing scrutiny in this era of standards and high-stakes testing as advocates and critics debate whether middle schools can adequately address the academic and emotional needs of early adolescents.

More than 5,600 teachers, principals, district leaders, and academics gathered here Nov. 1-3 at the annual conference of the National Middle School Association to discuss the obstacles to implementing the middle school philosophy.

One hundred of the more than 500 workshops and seminars dealt with challenging and relevant curricula.

“Can the curriculum be rigorous and relevant?” James A. Beane, a professor of education at National-Louis University in Evanston, Ill., asked in his “Hot Topic” session. Mr. Beane, who sounded a rallying cry for more rigor, focus, and meaning in the middle-grades curriculum in his 1993 book, A Middle School Curriculum: From Rhetoric to Reality, argued that the academic-standards movement and the high-stakes tests used in many places to gauge student progress toward meeting standards have undermined the best efforts of middle-level educators.

The standards, he said, have too often met the literal definition of rigorous, “meaning harsh or tyrannical.” But the desire to make the curriculum relevant to young adolescents, he added, has sometimes had the opposite effect, leading to activities and projects that engage students but are not particularly demanding or meaningful.

“Curriculum that is intellectually rigorous provides depth and care. It does not have to be overly difficult or painful or esoteric,” Mr. Beane said. “But it does not have to be fun either.”

The middle school concept envisioned instruction based on subject matter connected across disciplines by central themes or questions about students’ lives and the world around them, often generated or constructed by students themselves.

Critics have argued that what has emerged instead over the past four decades is a curriculum that is shallow, fragmented, and unchallenging. (“Middle Grades: Feeling the Squeeze,” Special Report, Oct. 4, 2000.)

Mr. Beane suggested that the middle school vision can form the basis of a standards-based course of study.

“Curriculum cannot be rigorous unless it is relevant,” he said.

But crafting such a curriculum in a standards environment is more likely in some states than others, he said. “The excellent examples of relevant curricula are possible in states where standards are broad and flexible and manageable in number,” he said, citing Vermont as such a state. “There is the temptation in other states to race over and memorize the material.”

Mr. Beane said California and Massachusetts are among those states that have content-laden standards that leave little time for innovation in instruction.

The 28-year-old association’s membership is at an all-time high of more than 30,000. Subscriptions to the NMSA publications, Middle School Journal and Middle Ground, are also thriving, according to association officials.

But educators’ anxiety over the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, and the restrictions many school districts are now placing on travel, meant a much smaller group here than in the past. Although more than 5,000 middle school teachers, principals, and district leaders traveled to the nation’s capital for the annual conference, the crowd was a little more than half the number expected.

With registration continuing into October, NMSA officials anticipated that many educators were delaying their decisions to attend while the war against terrorism unfolded. But when the FBI issued a second alert Oct. 29, warning that more terrorist attacks could be imminent, many potential participants and presenters canceled their plans.

“People are concerned, and I can understand why they couldn’t come,” said NMSA Executive Director Sue Swaim. “This has nothing to do with a decline in interest in middle-level education. A lot of people decided to come anyway because it’s an important opportunity to network and learn.”

—Kathleen Kennedy Manzo

Related Tags:

A version of this article appeared in the November 14, 2001 edition of Education Week as Middle School Educators Debate Meaning of ‘Rigor’


Special Education Webinar Reading, Dyslexia, and Equity: Best Practices for Addressing a Threefold Challenge
Learn about proven strategies for instruction and intervention that support students with dyslexia.
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Families & the Community Webinar
How Whole-Child Student Data Can Strengthen Family Connections
Learn how district leaders can use these actionable strategies to increase family engagement in their student’s education and boost their academic achievement.
Content provided by Panorama Education
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
College & Workforce Readiness Webinar
The School to Workforce Gap: How Are Schools Setting Students Up For Life & Lifestyle Success?
Hear from education and business leaders on how schools are preparing students for their leap into the workforce.
Content provided by Find Your Grind

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

Curriculum The World Cup as Teachable Moment? How One Teacher Approached It
It's not just a game: Geopolitics are inscribed into the soccer championship, giving teachers an opportunity to host rich discussions.
3 min read
Josh Sargent of the United States controls the ball during the World Cup, group B soccer match between the United States and Wales, at the Ahmad Bin Ali Stadium in Doha, Qatar, Monday, Nov. 21, 2022.
Josh Sargent of the United States controls the ball during the a World Cup match between the United States and Wales in Doha, Qatar, on Nov. 21.
Francisco Seco/AP
Curriculum Nearly 300 Books Removed From Schools Under Missouri's 'Sexually Explicit Materials' Law
Missouri's efforts to remove books from public schools—either temporarily or permanently—go farther than most.
5 min read
Banned books are visible at the Central Library, a branch of the Brooklyn Public Library system, in New York City on Thursday, July 7, 2022. The books are banned in several public schools and libraries in the U.S., but young people can read digital versions from anywhere through the library. The Brooklyn Public Library offers free membership to anyone in the U.S. aged 13 to 21 who wants to check out and read books digitally in response to the nationwide wave of book censorship and restrictions.
Several titles in this display of books in at the Central Library in New York city are on Missouri's banned books list. The N.Y. library allows young people anywhere to read digital versions of the books.
Ted Shaffrey/AP
Curriculum More Teachers Say Their Curriculum Aligns to Standards. But It Still Falls Short
About one in four teachers said they spent $300 or more of their own money on instructional materials last school year.
3 min read
An open book with scattered letters, graphs, math symbols and shapes floating on a dark blue background.
iStock/Getty Images Plus
Curriculum Q&A Why Media Literacy Programs Need to Put a Spotlight on 'Stealth Advertising'
As advertising evolves, digital literacy education must change with it.
3 min read
Illustration of numerous computer windows overlapping with creepy eyeballs inside the close, open, and minimize circles within the various window screens.
Daniel Hertzberg for Education Week