School Choice & Charters Explainer

Home Schooling

By Susan E. Ansell — September 21, 2004 | Updated: July 13, 2011 6 min read
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Editor’s note: This version was published in 2004. An updated version is available from 2018.

Home schooling, once dismissed as a fringe activity practiced by head-in-the-sand reactionaries and off-the-grid hippies, is now widely considered an integral part of the mainstream education system. Growing more common every year, the practice has gained attention due to home-schooled students sweeping up scholastic and athletic honors at national competitions and high-profile politicians opting to teach their own children at home (Lyman, 2007).

Consider these statistics: In 2009, approximately 1.5 million students were home schooled, up from the 850,000 students the federal government estimated were home schooled in 1999 (Ray, 2009). Some researchers even say that number is conservative and could be as high as 2 million students. From 2007 to 2010, the number of children home schooled increased by an estimated 7 percent; the number of children enrolled in schools increased by less than 1 percent over the same period. (Ray, 2011).

Back in 1980, home schooling was illegal in 30 states. It was not until 1993 that all 50 states made the practice lawful. But in recent years, the practice of home schooling has taken off. While reliable numbers are hard to come by since states define and track home-school enrollment differently, some experts argue that home schooling is the fastest-growing form of education in the country (Ray, 2011).

The most vocal and organized home schoolers have tended to be religiously motivated, most often conservative Christians. But a newer breed of home schooler is emerging that not motivated by religious belief or countercultural philosophy. Uppermost for these parents are concerns about violence, peer pressure, and poor academic quality in their schools.

So who chooses to home school their children and why? Data from the U.S. Department of Education suggest that although families who home school represent a wide spectrum of racial, ethnic, religious, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds, most are white, religious, and conservative. The majority are also well-educated, middle-class, and have two or more children. According to a 2007 survey of parents who home school their children, 36 percent said providing religious or moral instruction was the most important reason for doing it, while 21 percent said they were most concerned about their child’s learning environment. Dissatisfaction with the local academic institutions ranked as the third-most important reason for home schooling their children, with 17 percent giving that response. (Bielick, 2008).

Although some research has indicated that home-schooled students perform better on standardized tests than children in traditional schools, the claim that home schooling offers children a superior education is much disputed. One study of more than 11,000 home-school students found that students typically score 34 to 39 percentile points higher than the average student on standardized tests (Ray, 2009). Another study found that 25 percent of home-schooled students were enrolled one or more grades above their age-level public and private school peers (Rudner, 1999). These findings mirrored the study showing that home-educated students scored, on average, at or above the 84th percentile in all areas on standardized achievement tests (Ray, 2009).

But some educational researchers have argued that such studies draw from a select population of students. For example, the students in Rudner’s study were predominantly white and Christian and, critics argue, did not accurately represent the overall population of home-schooled students (Welner, 1999). Scholars also point out that these studies have only proven that home-schooled students perform well on standardized tests. But the studies have no way of indicating whether the same students would have scored equally as well on those tests had they been attending conventional schools.

Opponents of the movement worry that there is no way to assure that all home-schooled students receive a quality education. In the eyes of some public school teachers and administrators, this lack of quality control makes home schooling a dangerously deregulated enterprise. For example, according to the Education Commission of the States, most states do not require parents to obtain any sort of teaching certificate in order to home school their children. Only half the states monitor home-schooled students’ educational progress by requiring any sort of evaluation, such as a test, portfolio, or teacher evaluation. But there are several exceptions: New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania require home-schooled students to take tests and require parents to submit their curriculum for approval as well as undergo professional evaluations (Education Commission of the States, 2009).

Generally, however, most states have no systematic approach to regulating the practice of home schooling. As a result, organizations such as the National Education Association, the country’s largest teachers’ union, have come out against home schooling (NEA Resolutions, 2007).

The general public has some concerns about a lack of regulations, as well. In a 1997 Gallup poll, 88 percent of respondents agreed that home schools should “be required to guarantee a minimum level of educational quality.” In a 1999 poll, 92 percent of respondents said home-schooled students should take the same state and national assessments required in public schools. And although the number of people opposed to home schooling has dropped over the years, the majority, 57 percent, still regarded it as a “bad thing,” in 1997 (Phi Delta Kappan and Gallup, 1997 and 1999).

Students who have been home schooled tend to disagree. Recent research suggests that many home schoolers are happy with their parents’ decision to educate them outside the traditional school system. In 2003, the Home School Legal Defense Association commissioned a survey of over 7,000 adults who were home schooled and found that 95 percent were glad they had been home schooled. Ninety-two percent believed their home schooling had been advantageous to them as adults and over 82 percent said they would home-school their own children (Ray, 2003).

While debates over the benefits and risks of removing children from traditional learning environments continue, the home school movement has carved out its place in America’s education system. Every state has now established at least one home-schooling association and several states have begun to develop regional associations. Public programs that offer support to home-schooled families are also popping up around the country. Alaska sponsors a program whereby teachers can communicate with home-schooled students all over the state via email, telephone, and home visits. California has developed an independent-study program for home-school students. Iowa and Washington now require schools to admit home-school students part time (Hardy, 2001).

Nationwide, it has been estimated that 20 percent of home-school students enroll in public schools at least part time (Bielick, 2008). In addition to state initiatives, parents of home schoolers are banding together to organize group activities, such as sports events and field trips, for their children.

Related Tags:

Bielick, S., “1.5 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2007,” U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2008.
Education Commission of the States, “Issue Pages: Home Schooling,” updated 2009.
Hardy, L., “Learning Without School,” American School Board Journal (188:8), August 2001.
Lyman, I., “Homeschooling Comes of Age,” Mises Daily, September 2007.
National Education Association, Resolutions, 2007-08.
Phi Delta Kappa and Gallup, “The Annual Phi Delta Kappa/Gallup Poll of the Public’s Attitudes Toward the Public Schools,” 1997 and 1999.Ray, B., “2.04 Million Homeschool Students in the U.S. in 2010,” National Home Education Research Institute, 2011.
Ray, B., “Homeschool Progress Report 2009: Academic Achievement and Demographics,” National Home Education Research Institute, 2009.
Ray, B., “Home Educated and Now Adults: Their Community and Civic Involvement, Views About Homeschooling, and Other Traits,” National Home Education Research Institute, Home School Legal Defense Association, 2003.
Rudner, L., “Scholastic Achievement and Demographic Characteristics of Home School Students in 1998,” Education Policy Analysis Archives, (7:8) 1999.
Welner, K., “Contextualizing Homeschooling Data: A Response to Rudner,” Education Policy Analysis Archives (7:13), 1999.

How to Cite This Article
Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. (2011, July 13). Issues A-Z: Home Schooling. Education Week. Retrieved Month Day, Year from


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