Law & Courts

Education and the Supreme Court

By Mark Walsh — July 13, 2010 3 min read

The U.S. Supreme Court term that ended late last month was not nearly as significant for education law as the court’s previous term. But it was one of momentous change in terms of personnel, with Justice Sonia Sotomayor serving her first year and generally ruling with the court’s liberals, and the retirement after nearly 35 years of Justice John Paul Stevens, a champion of strict church-state separation and often of the rights of students. Here are capsule summaries of several cases school law experts were watching:

FIRST AMENDMENT

Nondiscrimination Policies in Schools

Christian Legal Society Chapter v. Martinez (08-1371)

The justices ruled that a law school may deny recognition to a Christian student group that refuses membership to gays and lesbians. The school’s “accept-all-comers” policy, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg wrote in a 5-4 opinion for the court, is a reasonable, viewpoint-neutral condition on access to the privileges of registered student groups, and thus does not violate the First Amendment rights of the religious group.

The National School Boards Association, which had filed a friend-of-the-court brief with the National Association of Secondary School Principals on the law school’s side, said the decision would help K-12 schools apply their nondiscrimination policies to student clubs.

Political Speech

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (08-205)

In a 5-4 ruling that defined the court’s term, the justices overturned limits on campaign spending for political-advocacy ads by corporations and labor unions. The court overruled two precedents on campaign finance and struck down, under the First Amendment’s free-speech clause, key provisions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002, better known as the McCain-Feingold law.

Although the AFL-CIO, of which the American Federation of Teachers is a member, had filed a brief opposing limits on union political speech, both the aft and the National Education Association criticized the court’s decision, saying it would prove far more beneficial to corporate interests in federal elections than to unions.

FOURTH AMENDMENT

Public Employees’ Work Privacy

City of Ontario, California v. Quon (08-1332)

The court unanimously upheld a California city’s search of a police officer’s government-provided pager that revealed sexually explicit text messages. But it stopped short of issuing a broad ruling about the rights of public employees to be free of intrusive government searches of their communications devices and records.

The NSBA and the NASSP had urged the high court to rule broadly that public employees do not have reasonable expectations of privacy in their electronic communications on government technology. But Justice Anthony M. Kennedy said that the high court must “proceed with care” when considering the privacy expectations of workers.

EIGHTH AMENDMENT

Juvenile Justice

Graham v. Florida (08-7412)

The court ruled that a sentence of life in prison without the possibility parole for a juvenile offender in a nonhomicide case violates the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. The justices decided 6-3 to overturn the sentence of a Florida man who received such a sentence for a series of robberies he had committed at ages 16 and 17, although only five justices backed the broader Eighth Amendment ruling.

Justice Kennedy wrote for the majority that, in accord with a 2005 Supreme Court decision that barred the death penalty for juvenile offenders, developments in psychology and brain science continue to show that juveniles are more capable of change than are adults, and that their actions are less likely to be evidence of “irretrievably depraved character than are the actions of adults.”

CIVIL RIGHTS

Attorneys’ Fees

Perdue v. Kenny A. (08-970)

The justices ruled unanimously that federal courts may award enhanced attorneys’ fees, above and beyond normal hourly rates, to lawyers who do an exceptional job in seeking institutional reform in such areas as foster care and education. But such enhanced awards will be upheld only in extraordinary circumstances, Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. wrote for the court. The justices ruled 5-4 that an enhancement of $4.5 million, on top of $6 million in regular hourly fees, to lawyers who brought about changes in Georgia’s foster-care system was not justified.

The case was monitored by the NSBA, which filed a friend-of-the-court brief on the side of Georgia arguing that enhanced-fee awards would harm districts and discourage them from settling lawsuits seeking broad reforms.

A version of this article appeared in the July 14, 2010 edition of Education Week as Education and the Supreme Court

Events

Classroom Technology Webinar Making Big Technology Decisions: Advice for District Leaders, Principals, and Teachers
Educators at all levels make decisions that can have a huge impact on students. That’s especially true when it comes to the use of technology, which was activated like never before to help students learn
Professional Development Webinar Expand Digital Learning by Expanding Teacher Training
This discussion will examine how things have changed and offer guidance on smart, cost-effective ways to expand digital learning efforts and train teachers to maximize the use of new technologies for learning.
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Student Well-Being Webinar
The Social-Emotional Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on American Schoolchildren
Hear new findings from an analysis of our 300 million student survey responses along with district leaders on new trends in student SEL.
Content provided by Panorama

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

Law & Courts 'I Just Want to Play.' Judge Halts W. Va. Law Barring Transgender Girls From Girls' Sports
Ruling for an 11-year-old transgender girl, the judge holds that the law likely violates the equal-protection clause and Title IX.
3 min read
Image of a gavel.
Marilyn Nieves/E+
Law & Courts Praying Coach v. District That Suspended Him: What's Next in Fight Over Religious Expression
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit declined to reconsider an earlier panel ruling that sided with the school district.
4 min read
Bremerton High School assistant football coach Joe Kennedy, center in blue, kneels and prays after his team lost to Centralia in Bremerton, Wash., on Oct. 16, 2015. Kennedy, who was suspended for praying at midfield after games, has filed a discrimination complaint on Tuesday, Dec. 15, 2015 with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission according to The Liberty Institute, a Texas-based law firm representing the coach.
Joe Kennedy, center in blue, kneels and prays after a game in October 2015 when he was the assistant football coach at Bremerton High School in Bremerton, Wash. In a long-running legal fight, Kennedy contends he has First Amendment free-speech and free-exercise-of-religion rights to express his Christian faith while on the job. The case is likely headed back to the U.S. Supreme Court.
Lindsey Wasso/The Seattle Times via AP
Law & Courts Appeals Court Again Backs Transgender Student, But on Narrower Grounds Amid Signs of Rift
A federal appeals panel removed a holding for student Drew Adams based on Title IX, perhaps to ward off a rehearing by the full court.
4 min read
Image of a gavel.
Marilyn Nieves/E+
Law & Courts Schools Will Get At Least $25 Million From Opioid Lawsuit
Lawyers are aiming to place significantly more money into the grant program as school districts' lawsuits against opioid companies continue.
3 min read
This June 17, 2019, photo shows 5-mg pills of Oxycodone.
This June 17, 2019, photo shows 5-mg pills of Oxycodone.
Keith Srakocic/AP