Published Online: May 3, 2005
Published in Print: May 5, 2005, as Sources and Notes for State Data Tables

Sources and Notes for State Data Tables

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Access to Technology | Capacity to Use Technology
Use of Technology
Definitions | How Market Data Retrieval's Survey Was Conducted

Access to Technology

Students per instructional computer: Market Data Retrieval, “Technology in Education 2004,” and unpublished tabulations from MDR’s 2003-04 Public School Technology Survey. This figure includes only computers that are available for student instruction.

Students per instructional computer located in classrooms, computer labs, libraries/media centers: Ibid.

Percent of instructional computers that run Windows 3.1 or 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, NT, or XP: Ibid.

Students per instructional multimedia computer: Ibid. A multimedia computer has a sound card and a CD-ROM drive, components that enable it to make use of sophisticated educational software. This figure includes only multimedia computers that are available for student instruction.

Students per Internet-connected computer: Ibid. An Internet-connected computer is any computer that can access the Internet, including noninstructional computers.

Students per Internet-connected computer located in classrooms, computer labs, libraries/media centers: Ibid.

Percent of schools with Internet access: Ibid.

Percent of schools with Internet-connected computers in one or more classrooms: Ibid.

Percent of instructional computers with high-speed Internet access: Ibid. High-speed Internet access means the computer is connected through a T1 or T3 line or a cable modem.

State finances hand-held-technology program for teachers or students: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005.

Percent of schools with hand-held personal digital assistants, or PDAs, for teachers: MDR, “Technology in Education 2004,” and unpublished tabulations from MDR’s 2003-04 Public School Technology Survey.

Percent of schools with hand-held PDAs for students: Ibid.

State finances student laptop-computer program: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005.

Percent of instructional computers that are laptops: MDR, “Technology in Education 2004,” and unpublished tabulations from MDR’s 2003-04 Public School Technology Survey. This figure includes only computers that are available for student instruction.


Capacity to Use Technology

State standards for teachers include technology: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005. States receiving a check in this column either have distinct technology standards for teachers or embed technology standards for teachers within standards for other subjects.

Requirements for an initial teacher license include technology training/coursework or a technology test: Ibid. States receiving checks in these columns either require approved programs of teacher preparation to include specific technology-related coursework or require teachers to demonstrate technology competence through a test.

Percent of schools where at least half the teachers are “beginners” when it comes to using technology: MDR, “Technology in Education 2004,” and unpublished tabulations from MDR’s 2003-04 Public School Technology Survey. Respondents were asked, “What percent of your teachers are at the following four technology-use skill levels?” Beginner=learning basics; Intermediate=uses variety of applications; Advanced=uses in curriculum; Innovator/Instructor=leader/ instructs others.

State standards for administrators include technology: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005. States receiving a check in this column either have distinct technology standards for administrators or embed technology standards for administrators within other standards or requirements.

Requirements for an initial administrator license include technology training/coursework or a technology test:Ibid. States receiving checks in these columns either require approved programs of administrator preparation to include specific technology-related coursework or require administrators to demonstrate technology competence through a test.

State requires technology training or a technology test for recertification, or requires participation in technology-related professional development for teachers or administrators: Ibid. Professional development does not have to be part of recertification requirements.

State regularly collects data on technology in schools: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column regularly collect data from districts and/or schools on technology-related issues that may include: student-to-computer ratios, Internet connectivity, use of technology by both students and teachers, technology professional development, etc.

State has mechanism to regularly replace or update technology in all schools: Ibid. States that have a mechanism to regularly update technology may not have one to update all technology in the state.


Use of Technology

State standards for students include technology: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005. States receiving a check in this column either have distinct state standards for technology or embed technology standards into their state standards for core subject areas.

State tests students on technology: Ibid.

Percent of schools where at least half the teachers use the Internet for instruction: MDR, “Technology in Education 2004,” and unpublished tabulations from MDR’s 2003-04 Public School Technology Survey. Respondents were asked, “What percent of your teachers use the Internet for instructional purposes?”

State has established a virtual school: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005. States allowing individual districts to provide their own online courses do not receive credit in this column.

State has at least one cyber charter school: Ibid.

State requires teachers of online courses to receive training in online instruction: Ibid. States receive a check in this column if they require this of all public school teachers who teach online courses, not just those teachers who instruct online courses through a specific state virtual school or online-learning program.

State requires at least one face-to-face meeting between students in online courses and their teachers: Ibid.

Percent of schools offering distance-learning programs for teachers: MDR, “Technology in Education 2004,” and unpublished tabulations from MDR’s 2003-04 Public School Technology Survey.

Percent of schools offering distance-learning programs for students: Ibid.

State offers computer-based assessments: Education Week Research Center annual survey of state technology contacts, 2005.

Computer-based tests are available to ALL students in the grade(s) and subject(s) in which those tests are offered: Ibid.

Computer-based tests are administered over the Internet: Ibid.

Computer-based tests are adaptive, meaning the level of difficulty changes based on prior answers: Ibid.

Computer-based tests include multimedia features such as sound or video clips: Ibid.

Computer-based tests include open-ended questions: Ibid.


Definitions:

Statewide refers to a representative sample of schools throughout the state.

High-poverty schools refers to schools in which more than half the students are eligible for the federal free or reduced-price lunch program.

High-minority schools refers to schools in which more than half the students belong to minority groups.


How Market Data Retreval's Survey Was Conducted:

From October 2003 to March 2004, Market Data Retrieval, a Shelton, Conn.-based provider of marketing information and services for the education market, contacted more than 85,500 public schools in the United States by telephone or by e-mail. Altogether, about 25,000 schools responded to the survey, with an overall response rate of 29 percent. Survey questions on teachers’ technology use and skill level, percentage of teachers using computers, and school-level technology spending were asked of a randomly selected subset of 4,600 schools, with an average response rate of approximately 39 percent.

Vol. 24, Issue 35, Page 80

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