Augustus F. Hawkins, a former Democratic congressman from California, died Nov. 10 from complications attributed to old age. He was 100.
Rep. Hawkins, the first African-American to represent California in the U.S. House of Representatives, was the chairman of the House Education and Labor Committee from 1984 until he retired in 1991.
Congress named the 1988 version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act after him and the late Sen. Robert T. Stafford, R-Vt. It included the first effort to hold schools accountable for the performance of students in the federal programs.
A version of this article appeared in the November 28, 2007 edition of Education Week