Opinion Blog

Rick Hess Straight Up

Education policy maven Rick Hess of the American Enterprise Institute think tank offers straight talk on matters of policy, politics, research, and reform. Read more from this blog.

Education Opinion

States to the Races

By Paul Manna — June 23, 2010 4 min read
  • Save to favorites
  • Print

Note: Paul Manna, a professor at William & Mary, is guest-posting this week while Rick Hess is on a consulting project in the Republic of Georgia.

Today we’ll continue discussing Race to the Top (RTT) and the implementation theme that Monday’s post introduced. I want to consider two issues that I expect will challenge state-level implementers as they try to make the reforms that RTT’s advocates are expecting. Let’s begin with some quick background, circling back to No Child Left Behind (NCLB) a bit, to set up this discussion.

I definitely agree that NCLB and RTT have increased the federal government’s profile in education. Still, the level of attention that Washington policymakers have received since 2001, especially from those who have argued that the feds have used their education initiatives essentially to take over American schools, has overshadowed a more substantively important story. During the last decade (and dating to the 1980s, even) the buried lede in popular discussions of American education has been the increasing impact that state-level policy choices have had on the educational experiences of the nation’s students. After all, even the most assertive federal policies have always depended upon state capabilities, judgments, and cultivation of “infrastructure,” as David Cohen and Susan Moffitt have described, to implement federal initiatives. That fundamental balance of power has not changed since the 1960s.

With states leading the implementation charge, it is worth asking whether they are positioned to produce the sorts of results that RTT’s supporters are betting on. Two challenges seem pretty steep. First is the ability of states to carry out the state-level reforms that their RTT proposals have described. State education chiefs and their allies competing for RTT funds have promised, among other things, to remake their state education agencies (SEAs) into performance-oriented, rather than compliance-focused, organizations. Whether states win RTT grants or not, the argument goes, big changes are on the way for SEAs. A popular refrain in states has been that “We’re going to do this anyways even if we don’t win RTT because,” apologies to Rick, “it’s for the kids.”

I’m encouraged by the states’ optimism, but the assumption that SEAs will turn on a dime in the four years they have to spend RTT funds, which will include bleak short-term operating budgets and two election cycles, isn’t a bet that I’d take without some pretty good odds. Even with chiefs focused on performance, distributing and tracking the use of money from various state and federal grant programs will still be a primary task for SEAs. Dozens of SEA employees, even the majority in some states, will still owe their jobs to the federal funds that they are charged with managing. It is hard to see SEAs’ compliance-focused activities fading into the background. That’s especially true given that chiefs do not appear to be promising major investments in SEA staff (in terms of new hires and training) needed to manage the cultural shifts that scholars such as Anne Khademian and Arnold Shober have noted are required for agency success. In the end, there may be a lot of shuffling of SEA organizational charts, but little substantive change. Let’s hope we don’t end up with a familiar story.

The second issue is whether the reforms that RTT winners produce will be transferrable or scalable across states, especially to states that fail to win any money in the competition. A big part of the Education Department’s theory of action behind RTT is that the contest can help to identify promising practices that states can then share with each other. RTT’s outgoing captain, Joanne Weiss, has made that point repeatedly, especially in technical assistance meetings with state officials. Herein resides a big paradox of RTT, and competitive grant programs in general, that will make knowledge transfer difficult.

Consider the difference between the RTT winners and losers. In theory, at least, the winners are receiving the money because they are the best positioned, in terms of their track records and future plans, to realize the ambitions of RTT. The winners will presumably have an easier path to success than the losers. If that is true, then simply gathering up the winners’ ideas and sharing them won’t necessarily tell the losers how to get into the starting blocks from which the winners began. Some of their ideas may catch on, but I’m skeptical that they will carry over in ways that foster dramatic change in state-level operations, especially in the states least prepared to win RTT. Generally speaking, state agency cultures are difficult (although not impossible) to change, especially in places such as SEAs where compliance-oriented work will remain ubiquitous.

--Paul Manna

The opinions expressed in Rick Hess Straight Up are strictly those of the author(s) and do not reflect the opinions or endorsement of Editorial Projects in Education, or any of its publications.

Commenting has been disabled on edweek.org effective Sept. 8. Please visit our FAQ section for more details. To get in touch with us visit our contact page, follow us on social media, or submit a Letter to the Editor.


This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Teaching Webinar
6 Key Trends in Teaching and Learning
As we enter the third school year affected by the pandemic—and a return to the classroom for many—we come better prepared, but questions remain. How will the last year impact teaching and learning this school
Content provided by Instructure
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Student Well-Being Webinar
Attendance Awareness Month: The Research Behind Effective Interventions
More than a year has passed since American schools were abruptly closed to halt the spread of COVID-19. Many children have been out of regular school for most, or even all, of that time. Some
Content provided by AllHere
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
School & District Management Webinar
Ensuring Continuity of Learning: How to Prepare for the Next Disruption
Across the country, K-12 schools and districts are, again, considering how to ensure effective continuity of learning in the face of emerging COVID variants, politicized debates, and more. Learn from Alexandria City Public Schools superintendent
Content provided by Class

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

Education Schools Get the Brunt of Latest COVID Wave in South Carolina
In the past few weeks, South Carolina has set records for COVID-19 hospitalizations and new cases have approached peak levels of last winter.
4 min read
Two Camden Elementary School students in masks listen as South Carolina Gov. Henry McMaster talks about steps the school is taking to fight COVID-19, Wednesday, Sept. 15, 2021, in Camden, S.C. McMaster has adamantly and repeatedly come out against requiring masks in schools even as the average number of daily COVID-19 cases in the state has risen since early June. (AP Photo/Jeffrey Collins)
Education More States Are Requiring Schools to Teach Native American History and Culture
Advocates say their efforts have gained some momentum with the nation’s reckoning over racial injustice since the killing of George Floyd.
3 min read
A dancer participates in an intertribal dance at Schemitzun on the Mashantucket Pequot Reservation in Mashantucket, Conn., Saturday, Aug. 28, 2021. Connecticut and a handful of other states have recently decided to mandate students be taught about Native American culture and history. (AP Photo/Jessica Hill)
Education Judge's Temporary Order Allows Iowa Schools to Mandate Masks
A federal judge ordered the state to immediately halt enforcement of a law that prevents school boards from ordering masks to be worn.
4 min read
Iowa Gov. Kim Reynolds speaks to reporters following a news conference, Thursday, Aug. 19, 2021, in West Des Moines, Iowa. Reynolds lashed out at President Joe Biden Thursday after he ordered his education secretary to explore possible legal action against states that have blocked school mask mandates and other public health measures meant to protect students against COVID-19. Reynolds, a Republican, has signed a bill into law that prohibits school officials from requiring masks, raising concerns as delta variant virus cases climb across the state and schools resume classes soon. (AP Photo/Charlie Neibergall)
Education Hurricane Ida Deals New Blow to Louisiana Schools Struggling to Reopen
The opening of the school year offered teachers a chance to fully assess the pandemic's effects, only to have students forced out again.
8 min read
Six-year-old Mary-Louise Lacobon sits on a fallen tree beside the remnants of her family's home destroyed by Hurricane Ida, in Dulac, La., on Sept. 4, 2021. Louisiana students, who were back in class after a year and a half of COVID-19 disruptions kept many of them at home, are now missing school again after Hurricane Ida. A quarter-million public school students statewide have no school to report to, though top educators are promising a return is, at most, weeks away, not months.
Six-year-old Mary-Louise Lacobon sits on a fallen tree beside the remnants of her family's home destroyed by Hurricane Ida, in Dulac, La., on Sept. 4, 2021.
John Locher/AP