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18 National Geography Standards

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  • Maps, globes, and other tools.
  • Mental maps of Earth.
  • Spacial organization of Earth's surface.
  • Physical and human characteristics of place.
  • Regions and Earth's changing complexity.
  • Culture and experience as influences on perception of places and regions.
  • Physical processes that shape patterns on Earth's surface.
  • Nature and distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.
  • Nature, distribution, and migration of human populations.
  • Nature and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.
  • Patterns and networks of economic interdependence.
  • Processes and patterns of human settlement.
  • Forces of cooperation and conflict that shape divisions of Earth's surface.
  • Earth's physical and human systems, their connections, and interactions.
  • Consequences of interactions between human and physical systems.
  • Changing meaning and importance of resources.
  • Interpretations of the past.
  • Interpretations of the present and planning for the future.

SOURCE: The Geography Education Standards Project.

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