Happening Today: Education Week Leadership Symposium. Learn more and register.
Opinion
School & District Management Opinion

Does ‘the Achievement Gap’ Evoke a Negative Stereotype? What the Research Says

By David M. Quinn, Tara-Marie Desruisseaux & Akua Nkansah-Amankra — December 05, 2019 4 min read
BRIC ARCHIVE

In the 21st century, calls to “close the achievement gap” have been ubiquitous in education circles. Yet, as policymakers and educators devote more attention to the problem, a growing number of commentators have begun to worry that the dominance of this “gap” framing of conversations about race and education may be counterproductive.

One concern is that this framing promotes deficit-based mindsets by assuming that White students’ outcomes should be the standard to which Black, Latinx, and Native American students aspire. Secondly, by focusing on student outcomes, the “achievement gap” framing may hide the role that broader structural forces play in producing these disparities. Instead, some scholars argued, we should frame the issue as an “education debt” to highlight the ways in which students of color have been systematically disadvantaged in education throughout the country’s history.

About This Project

In this special Opinion project, Education Week convened researchers and educators to explore how even subtle language choices can reflect and inform how we think about student potential.

This special project is supported by a grant from The Wallace Foundation. Education Week retained sole editorial control over the content of this package; the opinions expressed are the authors’ own.

Read more from the package.

These arguments are beginning to have an effect. For example, Teach For America announced last year that it is retiring the “achievement gap” term to instead talk of closing “opportunity gaps.” Until now, however, there has been no experimental evidence to help us understand the effect of the terms we use when discussing race and education. We, therefore, conducted a survey experiment with more than 1,500 teachers to learn more.

We hypothesized that the phrase “racial inequality in educational outcomes” would evoke more support for equity-focused policies than the phrase “racial achievement gap.” While substantively synonymous, the “racial inequality” framing evokes social justice connotations while the “achievement gap” framing may instead play into negative stereotypes about students of color.

In our national sample of pre-K-12 teachers, we randomly assigned respondents to receive one of two different versions of our survey items. One version used the term “racial achievement gap,” while the other used “racial inequality in educational outcomes.” The first item read: “As you know, there is [a racial achievement gap/racial inequality in educational outcomes] between Black and White students in the U.S. Thinking about all of the important issues facing the country today, how much of a priority do you think it is to [close the racial achievement gap/end racial inequality in educational outcomes] between Black and White students?”

The results supported our hypothesis: We found that teachers placed less priority on inequalities when those inequalities were framed as an “achievement gap.” Specifically, 78 percent of teachers who received the version of the question referencing “inequality” responded that ending racial inequality in educational outcomes was either a “high priority” or “essential” (versus a medium priority, low priority, or not a priority). However, only 70 percent of teachers who received the “gap” version responded that closing the achievement gap was a high priority or essential.

We found that teachers placed less priority on inequalities when those inequalities were framed as an 'achievement gap.'"

Furthermore, this overall difference was driven by White teachers (who made up 70 percent of the respondents): Among White teachers, 81 percent who received the “inequality” version responded that ending racial inequality in educational outcomes was either a “high priority” or “essential,” while only 68 percent who received the “achievement gap” version responded this way.

As a study of teachers in particular, this work does not provide insight into how the general public may respond to the achievement gap term or its broader surrounding discourse. People outside the field of education may hold different connotations for these terms and may be affected differently when they encounter them in policy debates or news stories.

Nevertheless, this study lends empirical support to the concern that the “achievement gap” framing may have unintended negative consequences. Our results suggest that the language we use to describe educational outcomes by race can affect the priority teachers place on ending inequalities. Teachers, education leaders, researchers, and journalists should therefore give thought to the messaging and language they use when discussing issues regarding race and education.

Perhaps an especially important arena in which we should be thoughtful about the terms we use is that of policy. We know from research outside of education that language affects people’s policy preferences. For example, Republicans are more likely to endorse a policy described as a “carbon offset” compared with the same policy when it is called a “carbon tax.” In policy debates and ballot initiates, the public may be more likely to endorse an equity-focused policy if its aim is described as “ending racial inequality in educational outcomes” versus “closing racial achievement gaps.” More experimental work is needed to better understand the nuances of how language around race and education affects public opinion.

Ending educational inequality will require shedding light on it. However, it is important that we understand how to frame these conversations in the most productive ways possible. Beyond the use of specific terms, we must better understand how the framing of educational disparities affects people’s cognition and how those framings may interact with people’s background knowledge and personal experience. Such insight will help guide solutions-oriented conversations for advancing educational equity and excellence.

Follow the Education Week Opinion section on Twitter.

Sign up to get the latest Education Week Opinion in your email inbox.
Coverage of leadership, summer learning, social and emotional learning, arts learning, and afterschool is supported in part by a grant from The Wallace Foundation, at www.wallacefoundation.org. Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage.
A version of this article appeared in the December 11, 2019 edition of Education Week as Is G-A-P a Four-Letter Word?

Events

This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Law & Courts Webinar
The Future of Criminal Justice Reform: A Sphere Education Initiative Conversation
America’s criminal justice system is in crisis and calls for reform are dominating the national debate. Join Cato’s Sphere Education Initiative and Education Week for a webinar on criminal justice and policing featuring the nation’s
Content provided by Cato Institute
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Student Well-Being Webinar
Equity, Care and Connection: New SEL Tools and Practices to Support Students and Adults
As school districts plan to welcome students back into buildings for the upcoming school year, this is the perfect time to take a hard look at both our practices and our systems to build a
Content provided by Panorama Education
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Classroom Technology Webinar
Here to Stay – Pandemic Lessons for EdTech in Future Development
What technology is needed in a post pandemic district? Learn how changes in education will impact development of new technologies.
Content provided by AWS

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

School & District Management Wanted: Superintendents to Lead Districts Through the End of a Pandemic
Former superintendents say there are signs when it's time to move on. Their replacements are more likely to be greenhorns, experts say.
4 min read
Los Angeles Unified School District Superintendent Austin Beutner speaks at a news conference at the school district headquarters in Los Angeles on March 13, 2020. Beutner will step down as superintendent after his contract ends in June, he announced Wednesday, April 21, 2021.
Austin Beutner, the superintendent of Los Angeles Unified, will step down after his contract ends in June.
Damian Dovarganes/AP
School & District Management Has COVID-19 Led to a Mass Exodus of Superintendents?
This year has been exhausting for superintendents. Some experts say they're seeing an unusually high number of resignations this spring.
5 min read
Chicago Public Schools Superintendent Janice K. Jackson, right, speaks on Feb. 11, 2021, during a news conference at the William H. Brown Elementary School in Chicago. In-person learning for students in pre-k and cluster programs began Thursday, since the district's agreement with the Chicago Teachers Union was reached.
Chicago Public Schools Superintendent Janice K. Jackson, right, announced earlier this week that she would depart the school system. Jackson, who assumed the superintendency in 2018, has worked for more than 20 years in CPS.
Shafkat Anowar
School & District Management Most Schools Offer at Least Some In-Person Classes, According to Feds' Latest Count
A majority of 4th and 8th graders had at least some in-person schooling by March, but inequities persisted.
3 min read
Image shows empty desks in a classroom.
Chris Ryan/OJO Images
School & District Management Opinion Education Researchers Should Think More About Educators: Notes From AERA
Steve Rees, founder of School Wise Press, posits AERA reflects a community of researchers too focused on what they find interesting.
4 min read
Image shows a multi-tailed arrow hitting the bullseye of a target.
DigitalVision Vectors/Getty