Poll: Learning Disabilities Are Often Misunderstood
About 80 percent of Americans believe the statement “people with learning disabilities are just as smart as you and me” to be generally accurate.
But a majority also link learning disabilities with mental retardation and autism, and more than 50 percent agree that learning disabilities are “often caused by the home environment children are raised in.”
The poll, which suggests that there’s a stigma associated with learning disabilities even as people generally agree disabilities can be overcome with proper instruction, was commissioned by the Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation of New Haven, Conn., which makes grants to support children with learning disabilities.
“‘Mixed bag’ is an accurate way to put this,” said Stewart J. Hudson, the foundation’s president. “I don’t think people have a very clear idea of what dyslexia and other learning disabilities are.”
The results came from a telephone survey conducted in May and June of 1,000 adults over the age of 18, with additional samples of 700 adults with children under 18 living in the home and 700 educators. For the general public, the poll has a margin of error of 3 points, and weighting was applied to make the sample represent the U.S. adult population.
This is the fourth time that the foundation has supported a poll of general attitudes related to learning disabilities, and findings suggest some growing awareness of the condition. ("Special Education," May 31, 2000.)
Children with “specific learning disabilities” make up the largest portion, about 40 percent, of 6.6 million students who receive services under the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The federal law defines specific learning disabilities as neurological disorders that impair a person’s ability to do tasks such as read, write, spell, or do math, but are not tied to overall cognitive ability.
The polls, conducted every five years since 1995, show that respondents are increasingly likely to say that they have heard or read “a lot” about learning disabilities. Some 38 percent of the public agreed with that statement this year, compared with 31 percent in 2004.
More people also agree with the statement that “all children learn in different ways:” about 79 percent agreed with that statement this year, compared with 70 percent in 2004. And most people in the survey—92 percent—believed it was completely or somewhat accurate that children with learning disabilities process words and information differently.
But despite a general perception among those surveyed that they have heard about learning disabilities and understand the nature of learning differences, many were also willing to chalk learning disabilities up to laziness or the home environment. Many also linked learning disabilities to other disorders, such as blindness or deafness.
For example, 76 percent of respondents this year correctly identified dyslexia as a learning disability. But 80 percent also linked learning disabilities with intellectual disabilities (referred to as “mental retardation” in the poll); 69 percent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; and 75 percent with autism.
Studies have found that while learning disabilities often coexist with other disabilities like ADHD and autism, having a learning disability does not mean that a student has an additional disorder.
About 51 percent surveyed this year agree strongly or somewhat with the statement that “sometimes learning disabilities are really just the result of laziness.” The result is down from 57 percent who agreed strongly or somewhat with that statement in the 2004 poll.
James H. Wendorf, the executive director of the National Center for Learning Disabilities in New York, said the term “learning disability” can be used loosely, which may be leading to misunderstanding among the public about what learning disabilities really are. “But I would affirm that ‘learning disability’ needs to be the term of record,” Mr. Wendorf said.
Vol. 30, Issue 07, Page 10