School & District Management

Early Grades Are New Front in Absenteeism Wars

By Sarah D. Sparks — October 19, 2010 6 min read
School aide Maria Figueroa, left, talks with students as they arrive late to PS 61 Francisco Oller School in New York City, where officials have launched an all-out assault on chronic absenteeism. Statistics are beginning to show that absentee rates in kindergarten and 1st grade rival those in high school students.

While many think of chronic absenteeism as a secondary school problem, research is beginning to suggest that the start of elementary school is the critical time to prevent truancy—particularly as those programs become more academic.

“Early attendance is essential; this is where you really want to work on them,” said Kim Nauer, the education project director at the Center for New York City Affairs at The New School, which studies attendance issues. “By the time you get to 5th or 6th grade, you can really get a cascade effect that you can’t recover from. How much money do we spend in a school system on all of this recuperative stuff in high school—getting the kid back and re-engaged—as opposed to making sure the kids don’t slip off in elementary school?”

Yet statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing 10 percent or more of school. That’s about 18 days in a normal 180-day year, according to the San Francisco-based Attendance Counts, the Baltimore-based Annie E. Casey Foundation, and others.

According to the Casey Foundation, which has stepped up its focus on attendance in recent years, the problem is especially acute among students from low-income families. The foundation reports that, in 2009, more than one in five poor kindergartners was chronically absent, compared with 8 percent of youngsters living above the poverty line. Among homeless students, absenteeism can be even more common.

Days of School Missed

In all grades, the lower the family income, the higher the absenteeism rates.

BRIC ARCHIVE

SOUCE: National Center for Children in Poverty

Reducing absenteeism is important, experts say, because studies link it to an increased likelihood of poor academic performance, disengagement from school, and behavior problems. (“Districts Begin Looking Harder at Absenteeism,” Oct. 6, 2010.) Moreover, research by the National Center for Children in Poverty shows that the same risk factors that make students more likely to become chronically absent, such as poverty-related mobility or an unstable home life, only serve to intensify the problems caused by missing school.

Ms. Nauer, whose report on early absenteeism prompted New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg to launch attendance-turnaround pilots at 25 schools this year, said educators there were surprised to learn that 10 of the 25 pilot sites are elementary schools.

“It’s so much a part of the average experience of the schools that we don’t notice it,” Ms. Nauer said. Teachers would “have about five or six kids gone on any given day, and they realized how absolutely disruptive that was, but they hadn’t really been thinking about it. Nobody even realized the little guys were missing so much school.”

Not a Priority

Hedy N. Chang, an early-absenteeism researcher and the director of Attendance Counts, said high kindergarten absences are the norm nationwide, but tend to get less attention from educators and policymakers than secondary school truancy.

Preschool and kindergarten absenteeism may be more prevalent, Ms. Chang said, because in many states kindergarten attendance is not mandatory and because parents and community members may not understand how early-learning curriculum has changed in recent years.

“Kindergarten as an academic resource is a relatively new experience,” Ms. Chang said. “Parents may think of their own experience, but kindergartners today are learning to read.”

Yet missing school early, when pupils are learning the most basic skills, can hamstring them in later grades and contribute to poor attendance throughout their academic careers.

The National Center for Children in Poverty found in 2008 that on average, pupils who missed 10 percent or more of school in kindergarten scored significantly lower in reading, math, and general knowledge tests at the end of 1st grade than did those who missed 3 percent or fewer days. Moreover, the researchers found chronic absenteeism in kindergarten predicted continuing absences in later grades. A study released this year by the Baltimore Education Research Consortium found that high school dropouts show steadily increasing chronic absenteeism for years before they actually leave school.

Family Interventions

Educators agree that improving attendance in the early grades requires a different approach from secondary school truancy interventions, because, as Ms. Chang put it, “Most 5-, 6-, 7-year-olds, they’re not home playing hooky.”

Since 2008, when the first attendance data by the Center for New York City Affairs suggested more than 90,000 of the city’s elementary school students miss more than a month of school, the Children’s Aid Society of New York has conducted school-by-school risk assessments and intervention plans to improve attendance at the 22 community-model schools with which it works.

“It’s so easy to jump to a conclusion about why a child or a group of children are absent—‘Oh, it’s the parents’ or ‘It’s the students’—but we have found in our research that it’s really important to do some digging and find out what is going on,” said Katherine Eckstein, the public-policy director for the Children’s Aid Society.

Octavia Ford, center, the on-site Children's Aid Society coordinator at PS 61, meets with Principal Pat Quigley, right social workers, and staff members. The society is working with PS 61 on its attendance push.

For example, Children’s Aid attendance monitors found young children’s absences could trigger a ripple effect in families. If younger siblings had to stay home with a flu, asthma, or other ailment, frequently older siblings missed school, too, in order to watch them while the parents worked. In the Bronx, PS 61 Francisco Oller School created child-care and health partnerships in which staff members interview the families of students who are absent frequently. In exchange for parents’ ensuring all their children get to school every day on time, an outreach coordinator will escort children to doctors’ appointments at the nearby Bronx Family Center clinic, or provide in- and after-school care, said Octavia Ford, PS 61 site coordinator. The school now wants to provide mental-health and social-service screenings for students anxious about coming to school.

Ms. Eckstein said her group has found that in neighborhoods with high asthma rates, schools with on-campus health centers have higher attendance than those without them.

“Children and families have relationships with the schools, obviously, but they also may have relationships with the Boys and Girls Club across the street or the health clinic, and you need to leverage all of those relationships,” she said.

Similarly, Providence, R.I., schools found that more than 16 percent of pupils in kindergarten through grade 3 missed 18 days of school or more. After interviewing parents, administrators determined that parents’ overnight work schedules contributed to the problem, as returning parents fell asleep before bringing their children to school.

In response, Robert L. Bailey, IV Elementary School created an early-morning child care starting at 7 a.m., to allow parents to drop off students at the end of their shift.

That type of parent education and family support can not only help parents and children develop better attendance habits, but can also get disconnected families engaged in school generally, according to M. Jane Sundius, the director of education and youth development at the Open Society Institute in Baltimore. “Even parents who don’t feel they can add much to their child’s education, if they are lauded for getting their kids to school each day, … there’s so much possibility there,” Ms. Sundius said.

A version of this article appeared in the October 20, 2010 edition of Education Week as Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

Events

This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Student Well-Being Webinar
A Safe Return to Schools is Possible with Testing
We are edging closer to a nationwide return to in-person learning in the fall. However, vaccinations alone will not get us through this. Young children not being able to vaccinate, the spread of new and
Content provided by BD
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Teaching Webinar
Meeting the Moment: Accelerating Equitable Recovery and Transformative Change
Educators are deciding how best to re-establish routines such as everyday attendance, rebuild the relationships for resilient school communities, and center teaching and learning to consciously prioritize protecting the health and overall well-being of students
Content provided by Campaign for Grade-Level Reading
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
Reading & Literacy Webinar
Addressing Learning Loss: What Schools Need to Accelerate Reading Instruction in K-3
When K-3 students return to classrooms this fall, there will be huge gaps in foundational reading skills. Does your school or district need a plan to address learning loss and accelerate student growth? In this
Content provided by PDX Reading

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

School & District Management Opinion A Crisis Sows Confusion. How District Leaders Can Be Clear in Their Messaging
Choosing a go-to source of information is a good starting point, but it doesn’t end there.
Daniel R. Moirao
2 min read
A man with his head in a cloud.
Vanessa Solis/Education Week and Getty Images
School & District Management Opinion COVID-19 Ripped Through Our Emotional Safety Net. Here’s How My District Responded
Three years after overhauling its approach to student mental health, one California district found itself facing a new crisis.
Jonathan Cooper
2 min read
A young man stands under a street light on a lonely road.
Vanessa Solis/Education Week and Getty Images
School & District Management Opinion Students Need Better Connections. To Wi-Fi, Yes, But Also to Teachers
We have to fix our digital divide, but let’s not lose sight of the relationship divide, writes one superintendent.
Susan Enfield
2 min read
A teacher checks in on a remote student.
Vanessa Solis/Education Week and Getty Images
School & District Management Opinion Superintendents Have Weathered a Lot of Vitriol This Year. What Have We Learned?
The pandemic turned district leaders into pioneers, writes one superintendent. We had to band together to make it through.
Matthew Montgomery
2 min read
A person walks from a vast empty space towards a team of people.
Vanessa Solis/Education Week and Getty Images