Further information on this topic is available from: Anderman, E. & Maehr, M.L. (1994). "Motivation and schooling in the middle grades." Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 287-309.
Berndt, T.J., Laychak, A.E., & Park, K. (1990). "Friends' influence on adolescents' academic motivation: An experimental study." Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 664-670.
CarnegZg_uncil on Adolescent Development. (1989). Turning points: Preparing American youth for the 21st century. New York: Carnegie Corporation.
Eccles, J.S., & Midgly, C. (1989). "Stage-environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents." In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education. (pp. 139-185). New York: Academy Press, Inc.
Epstein, J.L. & Connors, L.J. (in press). "School and family partnerships in the middle grades." In B. Rutherford (Ed.), Creating school/family partnerships. Columbus, Ohio: National Middle School Association.
Epstein, J.L. & MacIver, D.J. (1990). Education in the middle grades: Overview of national practices and trends. Columbus, Ohio: National Middle School Association.
Midgly, C. (1993). "Motivation and middle level schools." Advances in Motivation and Achievement, 8, 217-274. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.
"Middle grades research and reform." (1993). The Elementary School Journal (May). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Simmons, R.G. & Blyth, D.A. (1987). Moving into adolescence, Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter.
Wentzel, K.R. (1994). "Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support." Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173-182.