Federal Guidelines for Schools on Children With AIDS
Following is the text of the recommendations issued by the federal Centers for Disease Control on the education and foster care of children infected with aids.
1. Decisions regarding the type of educational and care setting for htlv-III/lav-infected children should be based on the behavior, neurologic development, and physical condition of the child and the expected type of interaction with others in that setting. These decisions are best made using the team approach including the child's physician, public-health personnel, the child's parent or guardian, and personnel associated with the proposed care or educational setting. In each case, risks and benefits to both the infected child and to others in the setting should be weighed.
2. For most infected school-age children, the benefits of an unrestricted setting would outweigh the risks of acquiring potentially harmful infections in the setting and the apparent nonexistent risk of transmission of htlv-III/lav. These children should be allowed to attend school and after-school day-care and to be placed in a foster home in an unrestricted setting.
3. For the infected preschool-aged child and for some neurologically
handicapped children who lack control of their body secretions or who
display behavior, such as biting, and those children who have
uncoverable, oozing lesions, a more restricted environment is advisable
until more is known about transmission in these settings. Children
infected with htlv-III/lav should be cared for and educated in settings
that minimize exposure of other children to blood or body fluids.
. Care involving exposure to the infected child's body fluids and excrement, such as feeding and diaper4changing, should be performed by persons who are aware of the child's htlv-III/lav infection and the modes of possible transmission. In any setting involving an htlv-III/lav-infected person, good handwashing after exposure to blood and body fluids and before caring for another child should be observed, and gloves should be worn if open lesions are present on the caretaker's hands. Any open lesions on the infected person should also be covered.
. Because other infections in addition to htlv-III/lav can be present in blood or body fluids, all schools and day-care facilities, regardless of whether children with htlv-III/lav infection are attending, should adopt routine procedures for handling blood or body fluids. Soiled surfaces should be promptly cleaned with disinfectants, such as household bleach (diluted 1 part bleach to 10 parts water). Disposable towels or tissues should be used whenever possible, and mops should be rinsed in the disinfectant. Those who are cleaning should avoid exposure of open skin lesions or mucous membranes to the blood or body fluids.
6. The hygienic practices of children with htlv-III/lav infection may improve as the child matures. Alternatively, the hygienic practices may deteriorate if the child's condition worsens. Evaluation to assess the need for a restricted environment should be performed regularly.
7. Physicians caring for children born to mothers with aids or at increased risk of acquiring htlv-III/lav infection should consider testing the children for evidence of htlv-III/lav infection for medical reasons. For example, vaccination of infected children with live virus vaccines, such as the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (mmr), may be hazardous. These children also need to be followed closely for problems with growth and development and given prompt and aggressive therapy for infections and exposure to potentially lethal infections, such as varicella. In the event that an antiviral agent or other therapy for htlv-III/lav infection becomes available, these children should be considered for such therapy. Knowledge that a child is infected will allow parents and other caretakers to take precautions when exposed to the blood and body fluids of the child.
8. Adoption and foster-care agencies should consider adding htlv-III/lav screening to their routine medical evaluations of children at increased risk of infection before placement in the foster or adoptive home, since these parents must make decisions regarding the medical care of the child and must consider the possible social and psychological effects on their families.
9. Mandatory screening as a condition for school entry is not warranted based on available data.
10. Persons involved in the care and education of htlv-III/lav-infected children should respect the child's right to privacy, including maintaining confidential records. The number of personnel who are aware of the child's condition should be kept at a minimum needed to assure proper care of the child and to detect situations where the potential for transmission may increase (e.g., bleeding injury).
11. All educational and public health departments, regardless of whether htlv-III/lav-infected children are involved, are strongly encouraged to inform parents, children, and educators regarding htlv-III/lav and its transmission. Such education would greatly assist efforts to provide the best care and education for infected children while minimizing the risk of transmission to others.