Science

How the Webb Telescope Can Take Students Back a Long Time Ago, to Galaxies Far, Far Away

By Alyson Klein — July 21, 2022 5 min read
This image released by NASA on Tuesday, July 12, 2022, shows the edge of a nearby, young, star-forming region NGC 3324 in the Carina Nebula. Captured in infrared light by the Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) on the James Webb Space Telescope, this image reveals previously obscured areas of star birth, according to NASA.
  • Save to favorites
  • Print

When the James Webb Space Telescope officially launched Dec. 25, it was a literal and figurative Christmas morning for Jennifer Basalari and about a dozen and half students, who took a break from opening presents to watch the launch together in an online video platform.

The excitement for Webb had been building in Basalari’s classroom since 2016, when she and other teachers visited a Northrop Grumman laboratory and saw part of the telescope under construction.

That experience, “completely sucked me in,” said Basalari, who teaches 5th grade STEM classes at Lakemont Elementary School in central Florida. She already is building a science unit for next year around Webb’s images, which NASA began releasing a little more than a week ago.

The telescope will change “what we understand about science, what we know about black holes and what we know about the beginning of stars and life and potentially the Big Bang,” she told her students.

Her enthusiasm has been so infectious that about a third of the kids joining her that morning were former students, who wanted to experience Webb’s launch with the teacher who had gotten them so jazzed about the project.

Though pictures—let alone teaching resources—from Webb are only beginning to emerge, Basalari predicts that educators around the country will make use of the show-stopping images to teach not just about astronomy, but about the scientific method, and how a big project comes together.

“Those images are going to be kind of the hook, because I don’t care who you are, if you’re looking at an image of space, especially new ones that haven’t been seen, 99 percent of people are intrigued and interested in that,” she said.

A powerful tool for teaching science

The Webb telescope, the most powerful ever built, enables scientists to see parts of the universe as they were about 200 million years after the Big Bang, according to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. That’s fairly close to the beginning of time, given that the universe is projected to be more than 13 billion years old. Through the images, scientists—and schoolchildren—can glimpse some of the earliest galaxies ever formed.

The concept can be overwhelming to seasoned scientists, much less 7th graders.

One place to start helping students wrap their minds around it: an explainer included with teacher resources created by the NASA.

It gives students an understanding of the size of the telescope—it’s as tall as a three-story building and as long as a tennis court—as well as its mission. (Yes, it is indeed hunting for planets with conditions that may support life as we know it.)

Another resource: Basalari has shown her students a documentary, produced by Northrop Grumman called “Into the Unknown” which tells the story of Webb’s creation. It offers students a real-life window into how mistakes and miscalculations inform discovery and invention.

“You’re not always going to be right. It’s OK to be wrong and go back and fix it,” she tells her class. Building the telescope took more than 20 years—longer than her students have been alive—because the scientists and engineers “had to go back and modify and redesign” when something initially didn’t work as expected.

The Webb telescope uses infrared cameras, which can see through the dust clouds in the universe, where new stars and planets form.

That gives teachers “an excuse to bring in [the topic of] infrared radiation and learn about how it works and demonstrate, for example, that there are literally colors you cannot see,” said Jeff Adkins, who teaches astronomy and physics at Deer Valley High School in Antioch, Calif., outside San Francisco.

He’s been looking at a NASA resource entitled “High School Experiments with Infrared Astronomy,” which, among other things, offers some real world applications for calculus and Algebra.

And Adkins is on the lookout for “deep field images” from the telescope—essentially pictures of empty space—that his students may be able to use to count galaxies in a particular area, with the ultimate goal of coming up with a crude estimate of how many galaxies there are in the universe.

Inspiring students and capturing their imagination

The telescope also is bringing back new images of planets beyond those identified in Earth’s solar system. So Greg Flick, a 9th-grade science teacher in North Syracuse, N.Y., wants to send his students, some of whom are obsessed with science fiction franchises like Star Wars, planet-hunting.

He’s looking for data sets that scientists used to pinpoint new planets. He’ll make them user-friendly for his classes, allowing students to try and replicate the professionals’ work.

“Hopefully it will engender the same sense of discovery that the actual scientists [have] when they actually find something,” said Flick. Like Basalari, he got to see part of Webb’s construction, in his case at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland.

Flick, who is part of NASA’s Solar System Ambassadors, a public education program, said the agency typically has excellent materials for teachers. NASA has already posted some materials on Webb, but for now, “there’s not a lot out there” just yet because the telescope is only beginning to send back images that will inform years of scientific inquiry.

The imagination-capturing pictures are part of the Webb’s program of letting, “the world know ‘we’re up and running,’” he said. “And I’m grateful for that and follow it avidly.”

One figure that may be as inspiring to some students as those otherworldly images: Gregory Robinson, the Webb program director who has been credited with bringing the project to fruition after years of delays and budgetary issues. Robinson, who is Black, is the ninth of 11 children, born to sharecroppers in rural Danville, Va. He grew up in a largely segregated South.

“I do think he will be joining the ranks of those scientists that are held up” for K-12 students, said Christine Royce, a professor of teacher education at Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania and a past president of the National Science Teaching Association.

Royce is hoping that will happen “as soon as possible,” she said. “We often just think about scientists after the fact. We’re beginning to try and be more cognizant of talking about current scientists,” particularly those from diverse backgrounds.

“It is important for students to see people who look like them” doing groundbreaking work, she said. Robinson has spoken about his own K-12 experience, crediting his teachers, parents, and church for telling him he could do anything he wanted if he got an education.

That message needs to be championed along with the space images Robinson helped make possible, Royce said. “I think it’s important for kids to hear, for teachers to repeat, for [that] information to be shared.”

Events

School & District Management K-12 Essentials Forum Get a Strong Start to the New School Year
Get insights and actions from Education Week journalists and expert guests on how to start the new school year on strong footing.
Reading & Literacy Webinar A Roadmap to Multisensory Early Literacy Instruction: Accelerate Growth for All Students 
How can you develop key literacy skills with a diverse range of learners? Explore best practices and tips to meet the needs of all students. 
This content is provided by our sponsor. It is not written by and does not necessarily reflect the views of Education Week's editorial staff.
Sponsor
College & Workforce Readiness Webinar
Supporting 21st Century Skills with a Whole-Child Focus
What skills do students need to succeed in the 21st century? Explore the latest strategies to best prepare students for college, career, and life.
Content provided by Panorama Education

EdWeek Top School Jobs

Teacher Jobs
Search over ten thousand teaching jobs nationwide — elementary, middle, high school and more.
View Jobs
Principal Jobs
Find hundreds of jobs for principals, assistant principals, and other school leadership roles.
View Jobs
Administrator Jobs
Over a thousand district-level jobs: superintendents, directors, more.
View Jobs
Support Staff Jobs
Search thousands of jobs, from paraprofessionals to counselors and more.
View Jobs

Read Next

Science What the Research Says Teaching Students to Understand the Uncertainties of Science Could Help Build Public Trust
Scientists want schools to do more to help students appreciate how uncertainty and variation builds scientific knowledge.
5 min read
Photo of teacher answering question from student.
Getty
Science How to Close the STEM Achievement Gap for Indigenous Students: Feature Local Culture
Study examines factors that will positively impact Indigenous students' STEM proficiency.
2 min read
Image shows a young student working on a laptop with a teacher.
E+/Getty
Science 4 Teaching Ideas Students Will Benefit From Now and as Adults
Problem solving and entrepreneurial thinking are being integrated into STEM instruction in very creative and relevant ways.
2 min read
Students in the aviation program at Magruder High School take a look at the exposed engine of an airplane during a visit to the Montgomery County Airpark in Gaithersburg, Md., on April 6, 2022.
Students in the aviation program at Magruder High School in Rockville, Md., examine the exposed engine of an airplane during a visit to the nearby Montgomery County Airpark in April.
Jaclyn Borowski/Education Week
Science These 3 Latina Teachers Are Pushing the Boundaries of Computer Science Class
From California to Massachusetts to Puerto Rico, Latina educators are helping expand notions of what counts as "real" computer science.
9 min read
Megan Bowen walks through the lesson plan for the day during class at Salem Academy Charter School in Salem, Mass., on April 25, 2022.
Megan Bowen walks through the lesson plan for the day during class at Salem Academy Charter School in Salem, Mass., on April 25, 2022.
Nathan Klima for Education Week