To Build a Nation of Readers
Experts from the White House to the Ivory Tower agree—and real teachers of real children concur—that reading is the most important skill schoolchildren must acquire. Whether they learn through whole language or phonics, children must leave the elementary grades competent in the art of decoding written text in their native language. Even mathematics and science, the darlings of international comparisons (perhaps because the subject matter can stand up to cross-cultural comparison better than the humanities), are deemed less essential than reading as primary-grade subject matter.
Statistics on literacy paint a troubling portrait of the reading ability of Americans; the fact that numbers vary is itself an indication of a broad gray area of semiliteracy, a gray area that manifests itself in a significant chunk of our population that does not read with competence or, more important, confidence and enjoyment. Like economic wealth, literacy in America is unevenly distributed, with children in affluent communities out-reading their poorer peers. At the highest end of the reading-competence spectrum are children whose parents are both economically successful and themselves readers—academics, knowledge professionals, executives in fields that are language- and creativity-intensive.
The children who both can and do read, nonstop, with pleasure, curiosity, and skill, occupy a strange place in our national pantheon. Because their endeavors tend to be solitary and to focus the child on inward things, these young super-readers are often regarded by peers as nothing but oddities—in the cruelest construction, geeks or nerds. They may be the teachers’ pets, but few of their classmates are working to emulate them the way they might a star athlete, a trendy dresser, or the first kids in their elementary school to experiment with those risky behaviors that media culture represents as ultracool.
It’s time we turned our national attention to turning every child into a reader, to creating conditions in our schools to support, encourage, and reward every child in becoming a fully competent, fully engaged reader. It is a truism that the most academically successful children, whether success is measured by grades or by standardized-test scores, are those who read. All the SAT-prep courses in the world cannot bring a nonreading student to the scoring level of voracious, experienced readers whose eyes have passed over tens of thousands of pages because they enjoy, even crave, reading. To whatever degree access to the most exciting experiences in higher education is truly meritocratic, in the end, it is these skilled readers, the oft-labeled geeks, who will reap the rewards. A high degree of individual and collective literacy is essential in a world that communicates its ideas, its concerns, its data, and its solutions primarily in writing.
I have a simple proposal for bringing about a massive improvement in our national literacy level. I believe that an entire school year in the elementary grades—4th grade, a year I have chosen for reasons I will discuss below—should be devoted exclusively to reading. Formal coursework in mathematics, science, the arts, and even grammar and spelling would be suspended. Fourth grade classrooms would become nothing but centers of active reading—silent and oral—from September to June.
I have chosen 4th grade because it is the year by which the vast majority of children have mastered the basic skills of decoding written text. For students who struggle, by that year interventions are largely focused on improving performance in “real” reading—not just of individual words, but of narratives with meaning. By 4th grade, a degree of comprehension and fluency, even within a broad range, is a reasonable goal.
Furthermore, the reading material available to 4th graders is wonderfully varied, from Level 1 and 2 readers for weaker students, to “age appropriate” chapter books, right through the Harry Potter books for the most facile. On top of this, 4th graders combine intellectual competence with an unjaded curiosity about the world that makes them among the most eager of learners.
In my ideal school, every 4th grade classroom would be a giant library, with shelves of books and lots of comfortable, well-lighted places for students to flop down and read. From the time students arrived in the morning until the end of the day, the primary work of each student would be to read, with suitable break time for recess, physical activity (I am not crazy enough to suggest that physical education classes should be suspended for 9- and 10-year-olds), and some social interaction.
Fourth grade teachers would essentially be transformed into individual reading coaches and personal librarians, with plenty of opportunities for them to develop and implement creative strategies for managing and maximizing each student’s reading. They would also have expanded opportunities to implement classwide reading strategies that in current practice are often shortchanged in the name of either coverage or test-preparation. Part of each day might be devoted to literature circles, part to teacher read-alouds (without guilt!), part to paired student read-alouds, and part to general discussions of a particular text to be read by all students. Students could prepare and share critical responses on their reading, from collages, skits, and debates, to personal reading logs and journals, to traditional book reports.
The ultimate goal would be to create engaged readers who understand that reading, being so central to their learning in this pivotal year, is indeed fundamental. To this end, the class library would hold a wide variety of books on many subjects, written at many levels. The great task, and great challenge, for teachers would be to become expert in helping each student find reading material that interests and challenges him or her. Quantity would matter more than quality, although the class library should contain the very best of contemporary elementary-grade and young-adult writing—nonfiction as well as fiction, periodicals as well as books—as well as “classics” from many traditions; I leave the actual selection to professionals in those fields. I would make certain that the reading matter included plenty of books and magazines focused on the sciences, the arts, and on the application of quantitative reasoning.
By the end of the year, each student will have read dozens, perhaps scores of books; the most able readers might be into the hundreds. At a bare minimum, the weakest students, bolstered by continuing remedial instruction as well as having extensive experience in reading material that has gently pushed them forward while providing the satisfaction of titles ticked off in a personal log, will be reading at grade level. But beyond this, each student will be able independently to find for him- or herself reading materials that will be fully comprehensible and enjoyable. Students will know that they can survive being “stretched” by a difficult text or passage. Students will have developed true tastes in reading and be able to articulate them. For these students, the written word will have become a powerful, adaptable tool—a tool that is emphatically theirs—for gathering information, for communicating ideas, and for finding personal satisfaction and pleasure.
Of course, this idea will smack of lunacy to many. To allow instruction in other disciplines to lapse might seem criminal. To assume that students with varied levels of reading skill, including those we classify as learning-disabled in the areas of reading and language, can all benefit equally from a year focused on reading alone might seem hopelessly idealistic. The notion that classrooms in every kind of school can be transformed into reading centers (not centers for reading instruction, but for reading itself) is itself a little nutty. And that 4th grade teachers can become personal reading-coaches-cum-librarians—well, the professional- development challenges are not small.
But is there a leader in American education, industry, law, medicine, science, or government who would not support the goal of this proposal? We must educate the children of our nation not merely to the level of being minimally capable decoders of written text—as measured in a meager way by the standardized testing required under the No Child Left Behind Act—but confident, eager readers, fully capable of making the fullest sense of written words and written ideas in many contexts. Children who pass through the system I envision would all be prepared to become the knowledge workers that our nation, and our planet, will need if we are to survive and thrive into the next generation.
I challenge any school, anywhere, to give this a try.
Vol. 25, Issue 22, Pages 30-31Published in Print: February 8, 2006, as To Build a Nation of Readers