The Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Passed in 1965 as part of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, this Act authorizes the federal government's single largest investment in elementary and secondary education. The ESEA focuses on children from high-poverty communities and students at risk of educational failure. The Act authorizes several well known federal education programs including Title I, Safe and Drug Free Schools, Bilingual Education (Title VII), and Impact Aid. The law was reauthorized in 1994, and again in early 2002 by President George W. Bush as the No Child Left Behind Act.