James Crawford

April 1, 1987 - Education Week
  The bilingual-education program in the Alhambra School District has
grown to 120 classrooms since it was created in the mid-1970's.

Bilingual education faces an uncertain future in California. While the state can claim some of the nation's most successful bilingual-education programs, it has also produced some of the best-organized opponents of bilingualism.

April 1, 1987 - Education Week
  Language preservation was the overriding goal of 19th-century bilingual-education programs. The maintenance of Spanish was an objective in Miami's Coral Way experiment of the early 1960's. And parents' desire to see their children become fluent in two languages was a major impetus for the development of Canadian immersion programs.

But in the United States today, few bilingual programs strive to develop lasting bilingualism. Federal policy prescribes transitional bilingual education--a remedial, rather than an enrichment, model. Continuing native-language instruction beyond the point at which children become proficient in English is controversial--even in California, where state law allows for maintenance programs.

April 1, 1987 - Education Week
  Bilingual education has been part of the immigrant experience in America since the Colonial period, when native-language schooling was the rule rather than the exception.

By the late 17th century, at least 18 different tongues were spoken by European ethnic groups, not to mention the scores spoken by Indian tribes. While English was most prevalent, German, Dutch, French, Swedish, and Polish were also common.

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