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Published Online: March 22, 2007
Published in Print: March 29, 2007, as Sources And Notes

Sources and Notes

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TECHNOLOGY LEADERS TABLE

Access to Technology

Percent of students with computer in classroom: National Assessment of Educational Progress, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2005. This figure represents the percent of 4th and 8th grade students in public schools whose math teachers reported that at least one computer was available to students in their classrooms. Figures for the 4th and 8th grades were averaged.

Percent of students with computer in lab/media center: Ibid. This figure represents the percent of 4th and 8th grade students in public schools whose math teachers reported that at least one computer was available to students in a lab or media center. Figures for the 4th and 8th grades were averaged.

Students per instructional computer: Market Data Retrieval, “2005-06 Public School Technology Survey.” This figure includes only computers that are available for student instruction.

Students per high-speed Internet-connected computer: Ibid. This figure includes only high-speed Internet-connected computers available for student instruction. “High-speed Internet-connected computer” refers to any computer with high-speed access to the Internet, such as through T1 or T3 lines, cable modems, or DSL.

Use of Technology

State standards for students include technology: Editorial Projects in Education Research Center annual state technology survey, 2007. States receiving a check in this column either have distinct state academic standards for technology or embed technology standards into standards for core subject areas.

State tests students on technology: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column test students on their knowledge of, or ability to use, technology through a required, state-administered assessment.

State has established a virtual school: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column have established and/or financed a statewide virtual school, an education institution where instruction is delivered over the Internet. States allowing individual districts to provide their own online courses do not receive credit in this column.

State offers computer-based assessments: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column allow some or all students to use computers to take state assessments. Tests do not have to be administered over the Internet to receive credit.

Capacity to Use Technology

State standards include technology for teachers: Editorial Projects in Education Research Center annual state technology survey, 2007. States receiving a check in this column either have distinct technology standards for teachers or embed technology standards for teachers within other standards.

State standards include technology for administrators: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column either have distinct technology standards for administrators or embed technology standards for administrators within standards in other areas.

Requirements for an initial license include technology coursework or a test for teachers: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column either require prospective teachers to take specific technology courses or require teachers to demonstrate technology competence through a test in order to receive a license. Requirements that are part of states’ teacher-preparation programs do not receive credit.

Requirements for an initial license include technology coursework or a test for administrators: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column either require prospective administrators to take specific technology courses or require administrators to demonstrate technology competence through a test. Requirements that are part of states’ administrator-preparation programs do not receive credit.

State requires technology training or testing for recertification, or requires participation in technology-related professional development for teachers: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column require teachers to receive training in the use of technology before they can be recertified, provide or require districts to provide mandatory technology-related professional development, or require teachers to demonstrate competence in the use of technology before they can be recertified. States that require districts to offer optional technology-related professional development do not receive credit.

State requires technology training or testing for recertification, or requires participation in technology-related professional development for administrators: Ibid. States receiving a check in this column require administrators to receive training in the use of technology before they can be recertified, provide or require districts to provide mandatory technology-related professional development, or require administrators to demonstrate competence in the use of technology before they can be recertified. States that require districts to offer optional technology-related professional development do not receive credit.

CHARTS AND GRAPHS

Internet Access in Schools, Page 8; Delivering Data Online, Page 40; Online Course Offerings, Page 42:

“Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2005,” John Wells and Laurie Lewis, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2006.

Digital Divide, Page 14; Computers at Home and School, Page 44: “Computer and Internet Use by Students in 2003,” Matthew DeBell and Chris Chapman, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2006.

Online Exposure, Page 27: “Online Victimization of Youth: Five Years Later,” Janis Wolak, Kimberly Mitchell, and David Finkelhor, University of New Hampshire’s Crimes Against Children Research Center, with funding from a federal grant to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, Alexandria, Va., 2006.

Vol. 26, Issue 30, Page 50

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