Published Online: March 20, 2007
Published in Print: March 21, 2007, as New in Print

Book Review

New in Print

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Brain Research

The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph From the Frontiers of Brain Science

by Norman Doidge (Viking, an imprint of Penguin, www.penguin.com; 448 pp., $24.95 hardback).

For years, the conventional wisdom has been that the human brain remains fixed after early childhood, subject only to deterioration. Children with mental limitations or adults suffering from brain injury can never hope to attain brain normality. Not so, says Doidge, a research psychiatrist and psychoanalyst at Columbia University and the University of Toronto. In this book, he outlines the emerging concept of neuroplasticity, or the brain’s ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life. Through numerous case studies, he describes stroke victims who have learned to move and speak again, senior citizens who have sharpened their memories, and children who have raised their IQs and overcome learning disabilities, among others. The science, he predicts, will have ramifications for professionals in many fields, but especially for teachers of all types. Oliver Sacks, a well-known neurologist and the author of the book Awakenings, calls Doidge’s work “a remarkable and hopeful portrait of the endless adaptability of the human brain.”

Train Your Mind, Change Your Brain: How a New Science Reveals Our Extraordinary Potential to Transform Ourselves

by Sharon Begley (Ballantine, an imprint of Random House, www.randomhouse.com; 304 pp., $24.95 hardback).

Neuroscience and Buddhism intermix in this survey of neuroplasticity.

The Accidental Mind: How Brain Evolution Has Given Us Love, Memory, Dreams, and God

by David J. Linden (Harvard University Press, www.hup.harvard.edu; 288 pp., $25.95 hardback).

A neuroscientist asserts that the brain is not a problem-solving machine, but a jumbled mass of ad hoc solutions accumulated over millions of years of evolution.

Church and State

Religious Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know—And Doesn’t

by Stephen Prothero (HarperSanFrancisco, an imprint of HarperCollins, www.harpercollins.com; 304 pp., $24.95 hardback).

Religion plays a role in nearly every domestic- and international-policy decision made in the United States, but Americans are largely ignorant when it comes to the basic tenets of religious faith, laments Prothero, who chairs the religion department at Boston University. He recounts how schools went from being sites of religious instruction to places where the subject is shunned, in large part, he argues, through the efforts of the very religious. Citing such statistics as that only 10 percent of American teenagers can name all five major world religions, he calls for religion to be given equal standing with reading, writing, and arithmetic as a fourth R in the high school and college curriculum. The goal should not be to inculcate virtue or promote religiosity, Prothero explains, but to prepare students for effective citizenship, and he describes how this can be done in accordance with the U.S. Constitution and Supreme Court rulings. He also includes, in the style of E.D. Hirsch Jr., a lengthy “Dictionary of Religious Literacy” defining more than 150 religious terms, beliefs, groups, and places commonly referenced in public debate.

God in the Classroom: Religion and America’s Public Schools

by R. Murray Thomas (Praeger, an imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, www.praeger.com; 296 pp., $49.95 hardback).

Tells the history of several current controversies, such as prayer in schools, with guidelines for educators on navigating them legally.

Diversity

Widening the Circle: The Power of Inclusive Classrooms

by Mara Sapon-Shevin (Beacon Press, www.beacon.org; 280 pp., $16 paperback).

For Sapon-Shevin, a professor of inclusive education at Syracuse University, “inclusion” goes beyond bringing students with disabilities into regular classrooms to mean the complete integration of children with differences—physical, ethnic, linguistic, economic, academic, and so on—as a matter of social justice. Just as a dinner-party host would plan a menu carefully and not expect vegetarian or lactose-intolerant guests to pick at dishes, so too should schools be designed so that all students can participate equally and have their needs met, she writes. Properly executed inclusion, she asserts, aids even “regular” students; indeed, she argues, “it is only within inclusive schools that anyone can become a fully loving and competent human being and citizen.” In setting forth her vision for such schooling, Sapon-Shevin addresses educators’ doubts, offers strategies for overcoming obstacles, and provides examples of classrooms where she sees its successful implementation. Inclusion, she maintains, is more than just a pleasant idea; it is necessary for nothing less than “the survival of a democratic society.”

The Difference: How the Power of Diversity Creates Better Groups, Firms, Schools, and Societies

by Scott E. Page (Princeton University Press, pup.princeton.edu; 448 pp., $27.95 hardback).

Explores why the collective wisdom of disparate minds is more beneficial than agreement or even individual genius.

History

Turn Away Thy Son: Little Rock, the Crisis That Shocked the Nation

by Elizabeth Jacoway (Free Press, an imprint of Simon & Schuster, www.simonsays.com; 496 pp., $30 hardback).

Fifty years ago this coming September, Gov. Orval Faubus of Arkansas deployed the state’s National Guard to prevent nine African-American students from attending Little Rock’s then all-white Central High School. At the time, Jacoway, now a scholar of Southern history, was a student in Little Rock and the niece of its superintendent of schools. But, she writes, she was “shielded purposely” from the crisis, and did not come to understand its importance until she entered graduate school. This book, a chronicle of the events that unfolded in Little Rock, stems from her ongoing desire to make sense of that turbulent period, the participation of her relatives and family friends, and her own childhood obliviousness. Drawing on 30 years of research and interviews with many key players—including Faubus; five of the Little Rock Nine; Daisy Bates, a civil rights activist and the students’ adviser; and Harry Ashmore, a journalist who won a Pulitzer Prize for his editorials on the conflict—Jacoway presents a comprehensive view of a pivotal moment in both national and education history.

Also of Note

White’s Rules: Saving Our Youth One Kid at a Time

by Paul D. White with Ron Arias (Morgan Road, an imprint of Random House, www.randomhouse.com; 240 pp., $19.95 hardback).

A veteran teacher shares his blueprint for turning deeply troubled teenagers around, both academically and morally.

Four Days to Glory: Wrestling With the Soul of the American Heartland

by Mark Kreidler (HarperCollins, www.harpercollins.com; 272 pp., $24.95 hardback).

Two high school seniors from rural Iowa—the capital of high school wrestling—attempt the rare feat of becoming four-time state champions in this book lauded by reviewers as wrestling’s Friday Night Lights.

The Kings of New York: A Year Among the Geeks, Oddballs, and Geniuses Who Make Up America’s Top High School Chess Team

by Michael Weinreb (Gotham, an imprint of Penguin, www.penguin.com; 304 pp., $26 hardback).

Charter school students from Brooklyn battle their way to the national chess championships.

The Little Book of Plagiarism

by Richard A. Posner (Pantheon, an imprint of Random House, www.randomhouse.com; 128 pp., $10.95 hardback).

A prominent legal authority reflects on a murky issue bedeviling authors and artists since Shakespeare.

Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques

by Laura Hennessey DeSena (National Council of Teachers of English, www.ncte.org; 117 pp., $29.95 paperback).

Advice for teachers on preventing and detecting student copying.

Educating All Children: A Global Agenda

edited by Joel E. Cohen, David E. Bloom, & Martin B. Malin (MIT Press, mitpress.mit.edu; co-published with the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 616 pp., $35 paperback).

Experts in the fields of education and international development analyze efforts to achieve universal primary and secondary education worldwide.

Inexcusable Absence: Why 60 Million Girls Still Aren’t in School and What to Do About It

by Maureen A. Lewis & Marlaine E. Lockheed (Center for Global Development, www.cgdev.org; 180 pp., $18.95 paperback).

Examines the plight of uneducated girls in developing countries.

Out of the Labyrinth: Setting Mathematics Free

by Robert Kaplan & Ellen Kaplan (Oxford University Press, www.oup.com; 256 pp., $25 hardback).

The founders of the Math Circle, a Boston program employing a playful, puzzle-based approach to teaching mathematics, explain how to make the subject accessible and enjoyable for all students.

School Money Trials: The Legal Pursuit of Educational Adequacy

edited by Martin R. West & Paul E. Peterson (Brookings Institution Press, www.brookings.edu; 373 pp., $26.95 paperback).

Education and legal scholars weigh in on adequacy litigation as a reform strategy; contributors include James W. Guthrie, Eric A. Hanushek, and Kenneth W. Starr.

Reclaiming Assessment: A Better Alternative to the Accountability Agenda

by Chris W. Gallagher (Heinemann, www.heinemann.com; 160 pp., $18.50 paperback).

An evaluation of Nebraska’s localized, teacher-led assessment system.

Planet Earth: As You’ve Never Seen It Before

by Alastair Fothergill (University of California Press, www.ucpress.edu; co-published with BBC Worldwide Americas; 312 pp., $39.95 hardback).

A companion to the Discovery Channel/BBC nature miniseries (scheduled to begin its U.S. broadcast March 25 on the Discovery Channel), this coffee-table book contains more than 400 photographs of wildlife and landscapes from around the globe. A selection of images can be viewed at www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/10815/10815.gallery.html.

Vol. 26, Issue 28, Page 30

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