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For the second straight year, the percentage of college freshman athletes who failed to qualify academically under Proposition 48 has increased, according to figures released last week by the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Colleges in the ncaa's division I, the top athletic division, enrolled 584 "partial qualifiers," who represented 6.5 percent of the total athletic scholarships given to freshmen at those institutions. The proportion was up from 1988, when 5.1 percent of all scholarships went to partial qualifiers, and 1987, when the figure was 4.7 percent.

Partial qualifers are freshman athletes who did not meet the core curriculum or test-score requirements of Proposition 48, but who earned a 2.0 or better grade point average in high school. They must sit out their freshman year of athletic eligibility.

The survey showed that 66 percent of all partial qualifiers in division I were black. Critics of the policy say standardized college-admissions tests, used as one basis for qualification, are biased against blacks, thus causing a disproportionate number of blacks to fail to meet the standards.

Test scores were once again the major stumbling block for most partial qualifiers. In 1989, 85.4 percent of partial qualifers failed to achieve the minimum score of 700 out of 1,600 on the Scholastic Aptitude Test or 15 out of 36 on the American College Test.

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