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Teenage pregnancy cost U.S. taxpayers nearly $20 billion in 1988, the Center for Population Options reports.

The study conducted by the private, Washington-based group examined the costs of three federal programs--Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid, and food stamps--for families in which the mother had her first child as a teenager. It said the cost of afdc for such families was $10.07 billion in 1988; the cost of Medicaid, $6.53 billion; and the cost of food stamps, $3.23 billion.

It also found that the approximately 365,000 teenagers who gave birth for the first time in 1988 cost the federal government nearly $6 billion.

If the 1988 births had been delayed until the mother was at least age 20, the nation could have saved more than $2 billion, the group calculated.

The ups Foundation, the charitable arm of the United Parcel Service, has awarded three national programs a total of $2.25 million to combat adult illiteracy.

The New Chance Program of the Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, which teaches basic skills to teenage mothers, will receive $750,000.

The foundation will grant $800,000 to u.s. basics, a nonprofit organization that will use the funds to establish 20 centers across the nation to provide instruction in English as a second language.

The third grant will go to the United Way to develop model community-based literacy programs. United Way will use the $700,000 to issue challenge grants to as many as six locations for developing such programs.

The federal government, the private sector, labor unions, and educators need to band together to stem a "technical manpower crisis" facing the country, a new report suggests.

The report by the Aerospace Education Foundation, draws heavily on previous reports on education, training, and demographic and workforce conditions.

To meet the shortfall of technical workers, the report calls on the federal government to expand support for education into all Cabinet departments--an idea discussed at President Bush's recent education summit.

The report calls on the private sector to continue business-education partnerships and to seek to influence state and federal education and training policy.

The recommendations also suggest that labor unions should become more involved in education and training programs.

The report, entitled "America's Next Crisis: The Shortfall in Technical Manpower," is available from the Aerospace Education Foundation, 1501 Lee Highway, Arlington, Va. 22209.

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