Research and Reports
Researchers have found that Minnesota youths turn to their fathers for career advice more often than their mothers and that teachers and counselors have surprisingly little influence over students' career choices.
"It seems like our teachers and our counselors are not having the impact they could have on our kids," said George Petrangelo, an associate professor of psychology at St. Cloud State University and an author of the study.
In the study, 285 students in grades 7-12 at high schools near St. Paul and St. Cloud were asked: "Who or what is the greatest single influence on your career choice?" The two schools in the study, which serve urban and small-town communities, were not identified.
Fewer than 5 percent of the students noted that teachers had an influence, and "counselors were seldom noted at all," Mr. Petrangelo said. "I know that there are a lot of counselors out there working real hard to make a difference. I'm sure that they're doing it, but I wonder if kids fail to perceive it as such."
The study also showed that "fathers were first, even among girls," as the primary source for career information. In grades 7 and 8, girls reported that their mothers had more of an influence on their career choices, but in grades 9 through 12, fathers took over.
More Likely Among
Children under age 5 who attend licensed day-care centers are far more likely than those who stay at home to contract hemophilus in3fluenzae type B--a bacterial disease that is the leading cause of meningitis in children, according to a study by two New York doctors.
Meningitis is an inflammation of the nerve lining around the brain and spinal cord that can be fatal. Studies have found that approximately 10 percent of the children who develop meningitis from the bacterial disease die. At least one-third develop neurological problems.
The younger the children in day care are, the greater their risk of developing the bacterial disease, according to the study, which was published in The Journal of the American Medical Association this month. Day-care participants younger than age 1 were 12.3 times more likely to contract the disease than children of the same age who stayed at home. Children ages 2 to 3 were almost four times as likely to develop the disease if they attended day care. There was no increased risk for children ages 5 or older.
Conducted by Michael E. Pichichero, a professor in the department of pediatrics at the University of Rochester's medical school, and Stephen R. Redmond, a doctor with the International Business Machines Corporation, the study examined the records of all cases of the bacterial disease in Monroe County, N.Y., in 1982 and 1983. Some 9,933 children, or 22 percent of the 44,289 children 5 and younger, attended licensed day-care facilities.
Births Among Teens
Over Past Decade
The number of births and the birth rates among teen-age mothers declined during the 1970's, partially because there were fewer teen-age women in the general population, according to a report released by the National Center for Health Statistics.
There were 18 percent fewer births among teen-age women in 1981 than in 1970, the study found, while the birth rate for 15- to- 17-year-old women fell by 17 percent, and the rate for 18- and 19-year-old women declined by 29 percent over the same period. There were 537,024 births to women under the age of 20 in 1981; until 1973, the birth rates for young teen-agers were increasing, while those for3older women were declining rapidly.
The study, released this month, said the adolescent female population declined by about 4 percent between 1980 and 1981 and will "continue to decline over the next several years as girls born in the low-birth years of the early 1970's reach the childbearing age."
However, although the overall rate of teen-age births declined, the number of births among unmarried youths has generally risen, the study found. In 1981, there were 267,828 births to unmarried women under 20, a 34-percent increase over the 1970 estimate. The annual rate of births among unmarried black teen-agers declined more sharply during the 1970's than did that for white teen-agers. The annual rate of births among unmarried white women increased by 40 to 65 percent between 1970 and 1981, while that for unmarried black women declined by 14 percent, the study found.
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